Global gene profiling reveals a downregulation of BMP gene expression in experimental atrophic nonunions compared to standard healing fractures
ABSTRACT Nonunion is a challenging problem that may occur following certain bone fractures. However, there has been little investigation of the molecular basis of nonunions. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a significant role in osteogenesis. However, little is known about the expression patterns of BMPs in abnormal bone healing that results in nonunion formation. These facts prompted us to investigate and compare the gene expression patterns of BMPs and their antagonists in standard healing fractures and nonunions using rat experimental models. Standard closed healing fractures and experimental atrophic nonunions produced by periosteal cauterization at the fracture site were created in rat femurs. At postfracture days 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28, total RNA was extracted from the callus of standard healing fracture and fibrous tissue of nonunion (n=4 per each time point and each group). Gene expression of BMPs, BMP antagonists, and other regulatory molecules were studied by methods including Genechip microarray and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Gene expression of BMP-2, 3, 3B, 4, 6, 7, GDF-5, 7, and BMP antagonists noggin, drm, screlostin, and BAMBI were significantly lower in nonunions compared to standard healing fractures at several time points. Downregulation in expression of osteogenic BMPs may account for the nonunions of fracture. The balance between BMPs and their endogenous antagonists is critical for optimal fracture healing.
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ABSTRACT: Clinical trials on fracture repair have challenged the effectiveness of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) but suggest that delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might be beneficial. It has also been reported that BMPs could not increase mineralization in several MSCs populations, which adds ambiguity to the use of BMPs. However, an exogenous supply of MSCs combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and BMPs is reported to synergistically enhance fracture repair in animal models. To elucidate the mechanism of this synergy, we investigated the osteoblastic differentiation of cloned mouse bone marrow derived MSCs (D1 cells) in vitro in response to human recombinant proteins of VEGF, BMPs (-2, -4, -6, -9) and the combination of VEGF with BMP-6 (most potent BMP). We further investigated ectopic bone formation induced by MSCs pre-conditioned with VEGF, BMP-6 or both. No significant increase in mineralization, phosphorylation of Smads 1/5/8 and expression of the ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes was observed upon addition of VEGF or BMPs alone to the cells in culture. The lack of CD105, Alk1 and Alk6 expression in D1 cells correlated with poor response to BMPs indicating that a greater care in the selection of MSCs is necessary. Interestingly, the combination of VEGF and BMP-6 significantly increased the expression of ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes and D1 cells pre-conditioned with VEGF and BMP-6 induced greater bone formation in vivo than the non-conditioned control cells or the cells pre-conditioned with either VEGF or BMP-6 alone. This enhanced bone formation by MSCs correlated with higher CADM1 expression and OPG/RANKL ratio in the implants. Thus, combined action of VEGF and BMP on MSCs enhances osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs and increases their bone forming ability, which cannot be achieved through use of BMPs alone. This strategy can be effectively used for bone repair.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e103060. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103060 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The reason for the formation of an atrophic non-union is not clear and an altered vascularization as well as a deregulation of endogenous growth factors is hypothesized. To obtain more information, we analysed human non-union tissue regarding the histology and quantity of several growth factors.International Orthopaedics 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00264-014-2496-6 · 2.02 Impact Factor