Pasture Types and Echinococcus multilocularis, Tibetan Communities

Sichuan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.
Emerging infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 7.33). 07/2006; 12(6):1008-10. DOI: 10.3201/eid1206.041229
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Our study showed that open pastures had more small mammal burrows than fenced pastures in Tibetan pastoralist communities in 2003. This characteristic was linked to a higher prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs and indicates that pasture type may affect E. multilocularis transmission.

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    ABSTRACT: Small mammal distribution was studied along a grazing gradient in a pastoral landscape of the Tibetan plateaus of Western Sichuan, China. Smaller small mammals (< 100 g) were sampled using standard trapping. The link between habitat and both smaller and larger small-mammal distribution on a landscape scale was estimated using landscape transects. The relative density of the Microtus oeconomus/limnophilus complex ranged from higher levels in fenced grassland and bushes (i.e., low grazing pressure), to lower levels in habitats with a high grazing pressure, where this species was not trapped. Ochotona curzoniae, O. cansus and Cricetulus kamensis displayed a reverse gradient, with higher relative densities in overgrazed habitats (bare ground). The distribution of Microtus irene was restricted to two slope habitats: rocky slopes and Stellera chamaejasme grassland. Microtus leucurus was only trapped in Potentilla fruticosa bushes and in a single grassland type with an intermediate stage of degradation. These results suggest a differential response of the small mammal species in terms of relative density to grazing pressure level.
    Mammalia 01/2006; 70(3-4):214-225. DOI:10.1515/MAMM.2006.042 · 0.82 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(11)60390-9 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Echinococcosis is a major parasitic zoonosis of public health importance in western China. In 2004, the Chinese Ministry of Health estimated that 380,000 people had the disease in the region. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is highly co-endemic with both alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE). In the past years, the Chinese government has been increasing the financial support to control the diseases in this region. Therefore, it is very important to identify the significant risk factors of the diseases by reviewing studies done in the region in the past decade to help policymakers design appropriate control strategies.Review: Selection criteria for which literature to review were firstly defined. Medline, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), and Google Scholar were systematically searched for literature published between January 2000 and July 2011. Significant risk factors found by single factor and/or multiple factors analysis were listed, counted, and summarized. Literature was examined to check the comparability of the data; age and sex specific prevalence with same data structures were merged and used for further analysis.A variety of assumed social, economical, behavioral, and ecological risk factors were studied on the Plateau. Those most at risk were Tibetan herdsmen, the old and female in particular. By analyzing merged comparable data, it was found that females had a significant higher prevalence, and a positive linearity relationship existed between echinococcosis prevalence and increasing age. In terms of behavioral risk factors, playing with dogs was mostly correlated with CE and/or AE prevalence. In terms of hygiene, employing ground water as the drinking water source was significantly correlated with CE and AE prevalence. For definitive hosts, dog related factors were most frequently identified with prevalence of CE or/and AE; fox was a potential risk factor for AE prevalence only. Overgrazing and deforestation were significant for AE prevalence only. Tibetan herdsmen communities were at the highest risk of echinococcosis prevalence and should be the focus of echinococcosis control. Deworming both owned and stray dogs should be a major measure for controlling echinococcosis; treatment of wild definitive hosts should also be considered for AE endemic areas. Health education activities should be in concert with the local people's education backgrounds and languages in order to be able to improve behaviors. Further researches are needed to clarify the importance of wild hosts for AE/CE prevalence, the extent and range of the impacts of ecologic changes (overgrazing and deforestation) on the AE prevalence, and risk factors in Tibet.
    01/2014; 3(1):3. DOI:10.1186/2049-9957-3-3

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