Effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on methylation status of E-cadherin gene in noncancerous stomach.
ABSTRACT Promoter hypermethylation of E-cadherin plays an important role on gastric cancer development. Whereas E-cadherin methylation was frequently detected in the stomach of Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals, we tested whether eradication of H. pylori alters the methylation status of the noncancerous gastric epithelium.
Endoscopic biopsies were taken from the antrum and corpus of H. pylori-infected subjects without gastric cancer. Presence of methylated E-cadherin sequences in the gastric specimens was detected by methylation-specific PCR. Bisulfite DNA sequencing was done to determine the topographical distribution and changes in methylation profiles with H. pylori eradication.
Among the 28 H. pylori-infected subjects (median age, 44.5 years), 15 (53.6%) had E-cadherin methylation detected in stomach at baseline. Discordant methylation patterns between the antrum and corpus were noted in six patients. One year after successful H. pylori eradication, there was a significant reduction in the methylation density of the promoter region and exon 1 of the E-cadherin gene as detected by bisulfite DNA sequencing (P < 0.001).
Promoter methylation in E-cadherin was frequently detected in the stomach of H. pylori-infected individuals. Eradication of H. pylori might possibly reduce the methylation density in E-cadherin gene and the chance of subsequent neoplastic transformation.
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ABSTRACT: DNA methylation changes are known to occur in gastric cancers and in premalignant lesions of the gastric mucosae. In order to examine variables associated with methylation levels, we quantitatively evaluated DNA methylation in tumors, non-tumor gastric mucosae, and in gastric biopsies at promoters of 5 genes with methylation alterations that discriminate gastric cancers from non-tumor epithelia (EN1, PCDH10, RSPO2, ZIC1, and ZNF610). Among Colombian subjects at high and low risk for gastric cancer, biopsies from subjects from the high-risk region had significantly higher levels of methylation at these 5 genes than samples from subjects in the low risk region (p ≤ 0.003). When results were stratified by Helicobacter pylori infection status, infection with a cagA positive, vacA s1m1 strain was significantly associated with highest methylation levels, compared with other strains (p = 0.024 to 0.001). More severe gastric inflammation and more advanced precancerous lesions were also associated with higher levels of DNA methylation (p ≤ 0.001). In a multivariate model, location of residence of the subject and the presence of cagA and vacA s1m1 in the H. pylori strain were independent variables associated with higher methylation in all 5 genes. High levels of mononuclear cell infiltration were significantly related to methylation in PCDH10, RSPO2, and ZIC1 genes. These results indicate that for these genes, levels of methylation in precancerous lesions are related to H. pylori virulence, geographic region and measures of chronic inflammation. These genes seem predisposed to sustain significant quantitative changes in DNA methylation at early stages of the gastric precancerous process.Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 08/2013; 8(11). · 4.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Tumor suppressor genes are inactivated more frequently by promoter methylation than by mutation in gastric cancer. Identification of genes inactivated by promoter methylation is a powerful approach to discover novel tumor suppressor genes. We have previously identified tumor suppressor genes in gastric cancer by genome-wide methylation screening. The biological functions of these genes are related to cell adhesion, ubiquitination, transcription, p53 regulation and diverse signaling pathways. Some of the tumor suppressor genes are of particular clinical importance as they can be used as predictive biomarkers for early diagnosis or ongoing prognosis of gastric cancer.Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics 06/2013; 13(5):445-55. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is well known to be associated with the development of precancerous lesions such as chronic atrophic gastritis (AG), or gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM), and cancer. Various molecular alterations are identified not only in gastric cancer (GC) but also in precancerous lesions. H. pylori treatment seems to improve AG and GIM, but still remains controversial. In contrast, many studies, including meta-analysis, show that H. pylori eradication reduces GC. Molecular markers detected by genetic and epigenetic alterations related to carcinogenesis reverse following H. pylori eradication. This indicates that these changes may be an important factor in the identification of high risk patients for cancer development. Patients who underwent endoscopic treatment of GC are at high risk for development of metachronous GC. A randomized controlled trial from Japan concluded that prophylactic eradication of H. pylori after endoscopic resection should be used to prevent the development of metachronous GC, but recent retrospective studies did not show the tendency. Patients with precancerous lesions (molecular alterations) that do not reverse after H. pylori treatment, represent the "point of no return" and may be at high risk for the development of GC. Therefore, earlier H. pylori eradication should be considered for preventing GC development prior to the appearance of precancerous lesions.World Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2014; 20(18):5461-5473. · 2.55 Impact Factor