Although an increased cancer risk in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is established, data on the spectrum of tumors associated with the disease and the influence of germ-line STK11/LKB1 (serine/threonine kinase) mutation status are limited.
We analyzed the incidence of cancer in 419 individuals with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and 297 had documented STK11/LKB1 mutations.
Ninety-six cancers were found among individuals with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. The risk for developing cancer at ages 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 years was 2%, 5%, 17%, 31%, 60%, and 85%, respectively. The most common cancers represented in this analysis were gastrointestinal in origin, gastroesophageal, small bowel, colorectal, and pancreatic, and the risk for these cancers at ages 30, 40, 50, and 60 years was 1%, 9%, 15%, and 33%, respectively. In women with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, the risk of breast cancer was substantially increased, being 8% and 31% at ages 40 and 60 years, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that cancer risks were similar in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients with identified STK11/LKB1 mutations and those with no detectable mutation (log-rank test of difference chi2 = 0.62; 1 df; P = 0.43). Furthermore, the type or site of STK11/LKB1 mutation did not significantly influence cancer risk.
The results from our study provide quantitative information on the spectrum of cancers and risks of specific cancer types associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
"LKB1 was originally identified as a tumor suppressor gene due to its association with an increased risk of malignancy and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS; a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by benign polyps of the gastrointestinal tract) (1). An increased incidence of carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as breast, ovarian, uterine, cervical, lung and testicular cancer, has been observed in PJS patients and their relatives (2,3). Somatic mutations in LKB1 have also been observed in sporadic pulmonary, breast, pancreatic and biliary cancers and melanomas (4–8). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is a well-known tumor suppressor gene in a variety of human cancers, including breast cancer. However, its role in gemcitabine resistance is unclear. Since gemcitabine in combination with other chemotherapeutic reagents is the first-line treatment in advanced breast cancer, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ectopic expression of LKB1 on chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in the breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line. Increasing the expression of LKB1 was found to directly correlate with gemcitabine chemoresistance. Although LKB1 suppressed the cell proliferation rate and clonogenicity in the absence of gemcitabine, it increased the median inhibitory concentration of gemcitabine and clonogenicity of cells in the presence of gemcitabine. Mechanistic analysis indicated that LKB1 was able to protect cells from DNA damage caused by gemcitabine. Furthermore, it was found that LKB1 induced a significant upregulation of cytidine deaminase expression, an important enzyme that accelerates gemcitabine catabolization. Overall, dual characteristics of LKB1 were identified: Suppressing cell growth in normal conditions and enhancing chemoresisitance to gemcitabine, possibly by accelerating degradation of gemcitabine, and protecting cells from DNA damage caused by gemcitabine.
"Van Lier et al. concluded that PJS patients already at a young age carry a high cancer risk and the authors found the average age at cancer-diagnosis (not site-specific) to be 42 years . The cumulative risk of cancer increases with age in several studies [41,44]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes such as Gorlin Syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome 2B are sometimes referred to as HPS. HPS is characterized by the development of hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract as well as several extra-intestinal findings such as dermatological and dysmorphic features or extra-intestinal cancer. The syndromes are rare and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.
The diagnosis of HPS has traditionally been based on clinical criteria, but can sometimes be difficult as the severity of symptoms range considerably from only a few symptoms to very severe cases - even within the same family. De novo cases are also frequent. However, because of the discovery of several associated germline-mutations as well as the rapid development in genetics it is now possible to use genetic testing more often in the diagnostic process. Management of the syndromes is different for each syndrome as extra-intestinal symptoms and types of cancers differs.
Clinical awareness and early diagnosis of HPS is important, as affected patients and at-risk family members should be offered genetic counselling and surveillance. Surveillance in children with HPS might prevent or detect intestinal or extra-intestinal complications, whereas in adulthood surveillance is recommended due to an increased risk of cancer e.g. intestinal cancer or breast cancer.
"The gene is divided into nine exons that encode a 433 amino acid protein that acts as a tumour suppressor. Mutation detection rates of 10%-94% have been achieved at different centers, depending on the screening method . Most mutations are frameshift or nonsense changes, resulting in an abnormal truncated protein and the loss of kinase activity. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), also known as periorificial lentiginosis, is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disease with an incidence of 1/200,000 live-borns. Mutations in the serine-threonine kinase 11 (STK11) gene are considered the major cause of PJS. The most frequent complication at young age is recurrent intussusception due to multiple hamartomatous polyps, primarily in the small intestine. Although extremely rare, the small bowel should be fully examined to be certain additional intussusceptions are not present. Herein, we report on a case of PJS with germline mutation of STK11 in a 12-year-old young girl who presented as a rare case of two small intestinal intussusceptions and review the literature.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research 06/2014; 86(6):325-30. DOI:10.4174/astr.2014.86.6.325
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