The longitudinal effects of social support and hostility on depressive tendencies.
ABSTRACT This 14-year longitudinal study examined the independent association between perceived social support and the 5-year progression of depressive tendencies while taking into account the potential effects of childhood/adolescent anger and later hostility. From the on-going population based study of "Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns", 553 male and 860 female participants responded to a revised version of Beck's Depression Inventory in 1992 and 1997. Hostility and perceived social support were assessed by self-rated questionnaires in 1992. Childhood/adolescent anger was assessed by parent-reports in 1983. Our results showed that higher levels of perceived social support were associated with the decrease of depressive tendencies after 5 years and lower levels of depressive tendencies prospectively and after 5 years. This association persisted after adjusting for childhood/adolescent anger and later hostility. In addition, hostility was strongly related to the 5-year increase of depressive tendencies and higher levels of depressive tendencies. Social support may therefore be a long-term protective factor from depression irrespective of personality characteristics, such as hostility and anger.
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ABSTRACT: Trait anger consists of affective, behavioral, and cognitive (ABC) dimensions and may increase vulnerability for interpersonal conflict, diminished social support, and greater psychological distress. The concurrent influence of anger and psychosocial dysfunction on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease severity is unknown.Annals of Behavioral Medicine 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12160-014-9667-y · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper aims at reviewing evidence and identifying research gaps in the studies of green space, gender and health. A detailed literature search was conducted using relevant search terms. The evidence and gaps in the studies of green space and its relationships to human health were synthesised from the review. Evidence suggests the use of green space is salutogenic, though there are few inconsistent findings. There is limited evidence of gender differences in use as well as the health impacts of green space. However, safety concerns, quality and quantity of green space, limited leisure time and gender role potentially account for the differential use of green space between males and females. The literature provides a mechanistic structure towards investigating the gender differences in the relationships between green space and health. Therefore, there is need to investigate gender differences in the frequency of use and type of use as well as gender differences in the effectiveness of each mechanism for salutogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested a positive effect of retirement on depressive symptoms. The present study took advantage of the large-scale, prospective Gaz et Electricité (GAZEL) cohort to examine whether personality could influence this effect. Depressive symptoms were assessed in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Among the participants for which changes in depressive symptoms after retirement could be computed, 9,755 had completed the Buss and Durkee Hostility Inventory and the Bortner Type A Rating Scale in 1993. Covariates included age, gender, occupational grade, history of sickness absences for depression, and alcohol consumption. The effect of hostility and type A personality on changes in depressive symptoms after retirement were assessed with general linear models. Adjusting for all covariates, higher scores of total (p <0.001; η(2) = 0.017), cognitive (p <0.001; η(2) = 0.021), and behavioral hostility (p <0.001; η(2) = 0.004) as well as type A personality (p <0.001; η(2) = 0.002) were each associated with a smaller improvement of depressive symptoms after retirement. Regarding hostility subscales, only the association with cognitive hostility remained significant (p <0.001; η(2) = 0.018) when both were simultaneously entered in the model. Among participants meeting the CES-D threshold of clinical depression before retirement, those in the lowest quartile of cognitive hostility were two times more likely than those in the highest to fall short of this threshold after retirement (odds ratio: 1.99; 95% confidence interval: 1.54-2.58). Individuals with high levels of cognitive hostility display less improvement of depressive symptoms after retirement. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jagp.2014.12.004 · 3.52 Impact Factor