[Cannabis and driving: the situation in Europe].
ABSTRACT In Europe, three million people consume cannabis every day. Investigations showed that more than two thirds of drug users drive after having smoked cannabis. Epidemiological studies show that between 0.5% and 8.2% of the general driving population is positive for cannabis. For drivers wounded or deceased as a result of an accident, the percentage varies respectively from 3.3% to 10% and from 2.2% to 8.4%. Finally, very high percentages are found in the studies which analysed the presence of drugs in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs: more than 50% in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Six European countries adopted an analytical or 'per se' legislation and the cut-offs vary between 0.3 and 2 ng/mL THC. In the Netherlands, experimental studies carried out after administration of cannabis clearly showed the impairing effects, in particular in the event of simultaneous consumption of cannabis and alcohol. Various research projects financed by the European Union studied the epidemiologic aspects (IMMORTAL), detection by psychotechnical tests (CERTIFIED) and roadside drug detection (ROSITA and ROSITA-2).
SourceAvailable from: Sarah Mr Wille[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: : "Driving under the influence of drugs" (DUID) has a large impact on the worldwide mortality risk. Therefore, DUID legislations based on impairment or analytical limits are adopted. Drug detection in oral fluid is of interest due to the ease of sampling during roadside controls. The prevalence of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in seriously injured drivers ranges from 0.5% to 7.6% in Europe. For these reasons, the quantification of THC in oral fluid collected with 3 alternative on-site collectors is presented and discussed in this publication. : An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric quantification method for THC in oral fluid samples collected with the StatSure (Diagnostic Systems), Quantisal (Immunalysis), and Certus (Concateno) devices was validated according to the international guidelines. Small sample volumes of 100-200 μL were extracted using hexane. Special attention was paid to factors such as matrix effects, THC adsorption onto the collector, and stability in the collection fluid. : A relatively high-throughput analysis was developed and validated according to ISO 17025 requirements. Although the effects of the matrix on the quantification could be minimized using a deuterated internal standard, and stability was acceptable according the validation data, adsorption of THC onto the collectors was a problem. For the StatSure device, THC was totally recovered from the collector pad after storage for 24 hours at room temperature or 7 days at 4°C. A loss of 15%-25% was observed for the Quantisal collector, whereas the recovery from the Certus device was irreproducible (relative standard deviation, 44%-85%) and low (29%-80%). During the roadside setting, a practical problem arose: small volumes of oral fluid (eg, 300 μL) were collected. However, THC was easily detected and concentrations ranged from 8 to 922 ng/mL in neat oral fluid. : A relatively high-throughput analysis (40 samples in 4 hours) adapted for routine DUID analysis was developed and validated for THC quantification in oral fluid samples collected from drivers under the influence of cannabis.Therapeutic drug monitoring 02/2013; 35(1):101-11. DOI:10.1097/FTD.0b013e318278dbe4 · 1.93 Impact Factor
Article: Cannabis use and traffic injuries.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 07/2011; 22(4):609-10. DOI:10.1097/EDE.0b013e31821db0c2 · 6.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: to study mortality risk in a cohort of cannabis consumers. longitudinal study on a cohort of 2,511 subjects reported to the Drug Addiction Control Force (DACF) for cannabis possession for personal use between 1990 and 2004 residents in the metropolitan area of Bologna. to identify people already treated for drug dependence, the cohort was linked with the clinical archive of the public treatment centers for drug addiction (PTC) in the metropolitan area of Bologna and the results were separated into PTC clients (subjects in treatment at a PTC, all heroin users) and non-PTC clients (subjects not in treatment at a PTC, no knowledge regarding other illicit drugs being used besides cannabis). an excess of mortality was observed for all causes in the cohort compared to the general population, both among PTC clients (SMR 14.61 CI 95% 9.21-23.19) and non-clients (SMR 2.43 CI 95% 1.67-3.55). Among PTC clients the highest and most statistically significant SMRs were for overdose, suicide, and AIDS. Among non PTC clients there was an excess for traffic accidents and overdose. the results of the study show an elevated risk of death for consumers of cannabis, a percentage of which probably also consumed other substances, and a very few which presented themselves for treatment at a public drug treatment center.Epidemiologia e prevenzione 01/2011; 35(2):89-93. · 1.46 Impact Factor