Intake of trans-unsaturated fatty acids (TFA) has been consistently shown in multiple and rigorous randomized trials to have adverse effects on blood lipids, most notably on the LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio, which is a strong marker of cardiovascular risk. When a mixture of TFA isomers obtained by partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils is used to replace oleic acid, there is a dose-dependent increase in the LDL:HDL ratio. The relationship between amount of TFA as % of energy and the increase in the LDL:HDL ratio appears to be approximately linear, with no evidence of a threshold at low levels of intake, and with slope twice as steep as that observed by replacing oleic with saturated fats. The average impact of TFA induced changes in the LDL:HDL ratio correspond to tens of thousands premature deaths in the US alone. Although dramatic, this effect is substantially smaller than the increase in cardiovascular mortality associated with TFA intake in epidemiological studies, suggesting that other mechanisms are likely to contribute to the toxicity of TFA.
"The average impact of TFA-induced changes in the LDL/HDL ratio corresponds to tens of thousands of premature deaths in the United States alone (Mensink & Nestel, 2009). Although dramatic, this effect is substantially smaller than the increase in cardiovascular mortality associated with TFA intake in epidemiological studies, suggesting that other mechanisms are likely to contribute to the toxicity of TFAs (Ascherio, 2006). Thus, although there is accumulating evidence linking inflammatory proteins and other biomarkers to CHD, lipid concentrations in the blood remain one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of risk. "
"Industrialproduced Trans Fatty Acid (TFA) have deleterious effects (Gebauer et al., 2011). Intake of Trans Fatty Acids (TFA) increases risk factors for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (Ascherio, 2006; Judd et al., 2002; Baer et al., 2004; Mensink et al., 2003). Specifically, TFA increase LDL- Cholesterol (LDL-C), decrease HDL-Cholesterol (HDL- C) and promote inflammation and endothelial dysfunction (Gebauer et al., 2007; Mozaffarian et al., 2009; Wallace and Mozaffarian, 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the domain of food, many efforts were conducted in the past to study the diet and health linkages. However, the variety of food components and their effects on human metabolism demands thorough research scientist to bring systematic and coherent information for the end-user. Thus current research was performed to determine the total Trans fat content in selected brands of hydrogenated vegetable oils which are more popular among people of Pakistan. Five different brands for each of vegetable ghee and margarine were analyzed for assorted physicochemical characteristics and total trans fat content in hydrogenated vegetable oils available in Pakistan. Results showed that physicochemical characteristics varied significantly according to commercial brands. Specific gravity and refractive index revealed non significant variations. Among vegetable ghee samples, the highest value for melting point was found in V3 (37.0°C) and lowest value was observed in the V2 (35.6°C). On the other hand, for margarine it ranged from 37.1-49.7°C. Highest acid value and FFA contents were recorded in M1 (0.25%, 0.5%) and V5 (0.24%, 0.46%). Pakistani vanaspati has iodine value 69% while margarine has 64.7% Total trans fat content was significantly higher for all vegetable ghee, ranged from 5.36-33.03% and in margarine samples these varied from 1.56-23.99%. In the nutshell, quality and stability of V2 and M2 brand from vegetable ghee and margarine was found good and also trans fat content were low in these brands.
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 02/2012; 11(2). DOI:10.3923/pjn.2012.145.149
"Women with the highest levels of trans fats in their blood were associated with a three times higher risk of having CVD than those women with the lowest levels . The potential mechanisms for this greater risk include an increase in LDL cholesterol, a decrease in HDL cholesterol, increased systemic inflammation, disruption of normal endothelial cell function, and possibly interference with the metabolism of other important fats   . A recent in vitro study has shown that TFAs induce pro-inflammatory responses and endothelial cell dysfunction . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elaidic acid, the predominant trans-fatty acid in industrially hydrogenated oils, exists on high levels in Iranian hydrogenated oils and margarines. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of elaidic acid and its cis-counterpart oleic acid on expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on human bone marrow endothelial cells (HBMECs).
HBMEC were pre-treated with TNF-alpha or LPS for induction of the adhesion molecules expression, and then treated with elaidic acid or oleic acid. Soluble and cell associated forms of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were quantified by ELISA and Western blot.
Our findings indicated that oleic acid suppresses VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression on HBMEC near to the basal level. Conversely, elaidic acid maintained the level of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 up-regulated by TNF-alpha or LPS.
It is suggested that elaidic acid could keep the HBMEC at the stimulated phenotype. These findings provide further support on the detrimental effects of elaidic acid in promotion and induction of cardiovascular diseases (CVD).
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