Trans fatty acids and blood lipids
ABSTRACT Intake of trans-unsaturated fatty acids (TFA) has been consistently shown in multiple and rigorous randomized trials to have adverse effects on blood lipids, most notably on the LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio, which is a strong marker of cardiovascular risk. When a mixture of TFA isomers obtained by partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils is used to replace oleic acid, there is a dose-dependent increase in the LDL:HDL ratio. The relationship between amount of TFA as % of energy and the increase in the LDL:HDL ratio appears to be approximately linear, with no evidence of a threshold at low levels of intake, and with slope twice as steep as that observed by replacing oleic with saturated fats. The average impact of TFA induced changes in the LDL:HDL ratio correspond to tens of thousands premature deaths in the US alone. Although dramatic, this effect is substantially smaller than the increase in cardiovascular mortality associated with TFA intake in epidemiological studies, suggesting that other mechanisms are likely to contribute to the toxicity of TFA.
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Article: FERNANDA CORREIA SIMÕES
Oleic acid: Production, uses and potential health effects, Edited by Lynette Whelan, 01/2014: chapter Oleic acid and its potential health effects: pages 35-54; Nova Science Publishers, Inc.., ISBN: 978-1-63117-576-3
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ABSTRACT: In the domain of food, many efforts were conducted in the past to study the diet and health linkages. However, the variety of food components and their effects on human metabolism demands thorough research scientist to bring systematic and coherent information for the end-user. Thus current research was performed to determine the total Trans fat content in selected brands of hydrogenated vegetable oils which are more popular among people of Pakistan. Five different brands for each of vegetable ghee and margarine were analyzed for assorted physicochemical characteristics and total trans fat content in hydrogenated vegetable oils available in Pakistan. Results showed that physicochemical characteristics varied significantly according to commercial brands. Specific gravity and refractive index revealed non significant variations. Among vegetable ghee samples, the highest value for melting point was found in V3 (37.0°C) and lowest value was observed in the V2 (35.6°C). On the other hand, for margarine it ranged from 37.1-49.7°C. Highest acid value and FFA contents were recorded in M1 (0.25%, 0.5%) and V5 (0.24%, 0.46%). Pakistani vanaspati has iodine value 69% while margarine has 64.7% Total trans fat content was significantly higher for all vegetable ghee, ranged from 5.36-33.03% and in margarine samples these varied from 1.56-23.99%. In the nutshell, quality and stability of V2 and M2 brand from vegetable ghee and margarine was found good and also trans fat content were low in these brands.Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 02/2012; 11(2). DOI:10.3923/pjn.2012.145.149