Activation in ventral prefrontal cortex is sensitive to genetic vulnerability for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 9.47). 12/2006; 60(10):1062-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.12.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disorder, associated with atypical patterns of brain activation in functional imaging studies. Neuroimaging measures may serve as an intermediate phenotype in genetic studies of ADHD, as they are putatively more closely linked to gene expression than a clinical diagnosis.
We used rapid, mixed-trial, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate changes in brain activation during a go no-go task in boys with ADHD, their unaffected siblings, and matched control subjects.
On the hardest inhibitory trials in our task, children and adolescents with ADHD had lower accuracy than control subjects, whereas their unaffected siblings did not. Control subjects activated a network of regions, including ventral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex. Both children and adolescents with ADHD and their unaffected siblings showed decreased activation in these areas, as well as fewer correlations between performance and activation.
These findings suggest that the magnitude of activation during successful inhibitions is sensitive to genetic vulnerability for ADHD in a number of regions, including ventral prefrontal cortex. If this can be replicated in future studies, this suggests that neuroimaging measures related to inhibitory control may be suitable as intermediate phenotypes in studies investigating gene effects in ADHD.

Download full-text


Available from: Tim Ziermans, Jun 23, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are only a few published reports of neural abnormalities within the families of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare cerebral activation of ADHD and control biological parent-child dyads during forethought, a prospective function of working memory. Reduced activations in ADHD dyads were found in the inferior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal lobule and left inferior parietal lobule. This suggests that fronto-parietal abnormalities are shared within ADHD families.
    Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.08.011 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are prevalent childhood disorders that frequently co-occur. Evidence from neuroimaging research suggests that children with these disorders exhibit disruptions in motor circuitry, which could account for the high rate of co-occurrence. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the functional connections of the motor network in children with DCD and/or ADHD compared to typically developing controls, with the aim of identifying common neurophysiological substrates. Resting-state fMRI was performed on seven children with DCD, 21 with ADHD, 18 with DCD + ADHD and 23 controls. Resting-state connectivity of the primary motor cortex was compared between each group and controls, using age as a co-factor. Relative to controls, children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibited similar reductions in functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex and the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, right supramarginal gyrus, angular gyri, insular cortices, amygdala, putamen, and pallidum. In addition, children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibited different age-related patterns of connectivity, compared to controls. These findings suggest that children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibit disruptions in motor circuitry, which may contribute to problems with motor functioning and attention. Our results support the existence of common neurophysiological substrates underlying both motor and attention problems.
    01/2014; 4. DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2014.03.010
  • Source
    Principles of Frontal Lobe Function: Second Edition, Edited by D T Stuss, R T Knight, 01/2013: pages 417-440; Oxford University Press.