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Activation in ventral prefrontal cortex is sensitive to genetic vulnerability for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 10.25). 12/2006; 60(10):1062-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.12.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disorder, associated with atypical patterns of brain activation in functional imaging studies. Neuroimaging measures may serve as an intermediate phenotype in genetic studies of ADHD, as they are putatively more closely linked to gene expression than a clinical diagnosis.
We used rapid, mixed-trial, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate changes in brain activation during a go no-go task in boys with ADHD, their unaffected siblings, and matched control subjects.
On the hardest inhibitory trials in our task, children and adolescents with ADHD had lower accuracy than control subjects, whereas their unaffected siblings did not. Control subjects activated a network of regions, including ventral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex. Both children and adolescents with ADHD and their unaffected siblings showed decreased activation in these areas, as well as fewer correlations between performance and activation.
These findings suggest that the magnitude of activation during successful inhibitions is sensitive to genetic vulnerability for ADHD in a number of regions, including ventral prefrontal cortex. If this can be replicated in future studies, this suggests that neuroimaging measures related to inhibitory control may be suitable as intermediate phenotypes in studies investigating gene effects in ADHD.

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    • "; Cohen & Poldrack, unpublished data; Konishi et al., 1999; Wager et al., 2005). Moreover, it has emphasized that compromised rVLPFC function, whether it's healthy but immature (Bunge et al., 2002; Cohen et al., 2010; Durston et al., 2002; Eshel et al., 2007; Galvan et al., 2006; Rubia et al., 2007), atrophied due to normal aging (Nielson et al., 2002), or mature but impaired (Booth et al., 2005; Chambers et al., 2009; de Ruiter et al., 2009; Durston et al., 2006; Payer et al., 2008; Roth et al., 2007; Rubia et al., 1999), results in decreased performance on tasks requiring self-control. Given the centrality and the necessity of being able to exert self-control throughout one's daily life, much research has focused on how self-control is exerted and "
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