Article

Development of an analytical method for the determination of anthracyclines in hospital effluents

Department of Medicine I, Clinical Division of Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna, Austria.
Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.5). 11/2006; 65(8):1419-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.03.069
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Little is known about the fate of cytostatics after their elimination from humans into the environment. Being often very toxic compounds, their quantification in hospital effluents may be necessary to individualise the putative magnitude of pollution problems. We therefore developed a method for the determination of the very important group of anthracyclines (doxorubicin, epirubicin, and daunorubicin) in hospital effluents. Waste water samples were enriched by solid phase extraction (concentration factor 100), analysed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and monitored by fluorescence detection. This method is reproducible and accurate within a range of 0.1-5 micro g l(-1) for all compounds (limits of quantification: 0.26-0.29 micro g l(-1) ; recoveries >80%). The applicability of the method was proven by chemical analysis of hospital sewage samples (range: 0.1-1.4 micro g l(-1) epirubicin and 0.1-0.5 micro g l(-1) doxorubicin). Obtained over a time period of one month, the results were in line with those calculated by an input-output model. These investigations show that the examined cytostatics are easily detectable and that the presented method is suitable to estimate the dimension of pharmaceutical contamination originating from hospital effluents.

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    • "Little information is available about the presence of this compound in hospital effluent and only Mahnik et al., in 2006, reported levels of this compound in the range 0.1 to 1.4 μg L −1 in a Vienna hospital [9], whereas it was not detected in a hospital effluent in Girona (Spain) [30]. The last compound, goserelin, was identified for the first time in one sample, at 0.35 μg L "
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    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 05/2014; 406(16). DOI:10.1007/s00216-014-7805-9 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    • "The environmental occurrence of pharmaceuticals has been widely reported and reviewed (Khetan and Collins, 2007). Concerning antimicrobial agents, several studies on their occurrence in wastewater and surface water have been published (Hirsch et al., 1999; Golet et al., 2002, 2003; Kolpin et al., 2002; Calamari et al., 2003; Giger et al., 2003; McArdell et al., 2003; Miao et al., 2004; Renew and Huang, 2004; Gobel et al., 2005, 2007; Joss et al., 2005; Lindberg et al., 2005, 2006; Nakata et al., 2005; Karthikeyan and Meyer, 2006; Mahnik et al., 2006; Batt et al., 2007; Gulkowska et al., 2008). "
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    • "For the analysis of the anthracyclines, sample enrichment by a factor 100 was performed using solid phase extraction columns (C8 columns) followed by analysis using HPLC (Agilent, 1090). Substances were identified by their retention time in the fluorescence scan (fluorescence detection) and quantified by peak area (Mahnik et al., 2006). "
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