Development of an analytical method for the determination of anthracyclines in hospital effluents

Department of Medicine I, Clinical Division of Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna, Austria.
Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.34). 11/2006; 65(8):1419-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.03.069
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Little is known about the fate of cytostatics after their elimination from humans into the environment. Being often very toxic compounds, their quantification in hospital effluents may be necessary to individualise the putative magnitude of pollution problems. We therefore developed a method for the determination of the very important group of anthracyclines (doxorubicin, epirubicin, and daunorubicin) in hospital effluents. Waste water samples were enriched by solid phase extraction (concentration factor 100), analysed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and monitored by fluorescence detection. This method is reproducible and accurate within a range of 0.1-5 micro g l(-1) for all compounds (limits of quantification: 0.26-0.29 micro g l(-1) ; recoveries >80%). The applicability of the method was proven by chemical analysis of hospital sewage samples (range: 0.1-1.4 micro g l(-1) epirubicin and 0.1-0.5 micro g l(-1) doxorubicin). Obtained over a time period of one month, the results were in line with those calculated by an input-output model. These investigations show that the examined cytostatics are easily detectable and that the presented method is suitable to estimate the dimension of pharmaceutical contamination originating from hospital effluents.

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    • "Little information is available about the presence of this compound in hospital effluent and only Mahnik et al., in 2006, reported levels of this compound in the range 0.1 to 1.4 μg L −1 in a Vienna hospital [9], whereas it was not detected in a hospital effluent in Girona (Spain) [30]. The last compound, goserelin, was identified for the first time in one sample, at 0.35 μg L "
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of 26 commonly used cytostatic compounds in wastewaters was evaluated using an automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) method with liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Detection was optimized using Oasis HLB SPE cartridges at pH 2. Two hospital effluents and their two receiving wastewater treatment plants were sampled over five days. In hospital effluents, eight cytostatics were detected at levels up to 86.2 μg L(-1) for ifosfamide, 4.72 μg L(-1) for cyclophosphamide, and 0.73 μg L(-1) for irinotecan, the three most relevant compounds identified. Cyclophosphamide and megestrol acetate were found in wastewaters at concentrations up to 0.22 μg L(-1) for the latter. The predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) in sewage effluents of ifosfamide (2.4-4.3 ng L(-1)), capecitabine (11.5-14.2 ng L(-1)), and irinotecan (0.4-0.6 ng L(-1)), calculated from consumption data in each hospital, published excretion values for the target compounds, and wastewater elimination rates, were in agreement with experimental values.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 05/2014; 406(16). DOI:10.1007/s00216-014-7805-9 · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    • "The environmental occurrence of pharmaceuticals has been widely reported and reviewed (Khetan and Collins, 2007). Concerning antimicrobial agents, several studies on their occurrence in wastewater and surface water have been published (Hirsch et al., 1999; Golet et al., 2002, 2003; Kolpin et al., 2002; Calamari et al., 2003; Giger et al., 2003; McArdell et al., 2003; Miao et al., 2004; Renew and Huang, 2004; Gobel et al., 2005, 2007; Joss et al., 2005; Lindberg et al., 2005, 2006; Nakata et al., 2005; Karthikeyan and Meyer, 2006; Mahnik et al., 2006; Batt et al., 2007; Gulkowska et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Occurrence and behavior of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) were investigated in hospital wastewaters in Hanoi, Vietnam. Hospital wastewater in Hanoi is usually not treated and this untreated wastewater is directly discharged into one of the wastewater channels of the city and eventually reaches the ambient aquatic environment. The concentrations of the FQs, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR) in six hospital wastewaters ranged from 1.1 to 44 and from 0.9 to 17 micrgl(-1), respectively. Total FQ loads to the city sewage system varied from 0.3 to 14 g d(-1). Additionally, the mass flows of CIP and NOR were investigated in the aqueous compartment in a small wastewater treatment facility of one hospital. The results showed that the FQ removal from the wastewater stream was between 80 and 85%, probably due to sorption on sewage sludge. Simultaneously, the numbers of Escherichia coli (E. coli) were measured and their resistance against CIP and NOR was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration. Biological treatment lead to a 100-fold reduction in the number of E. coli but still more than a thousand E. coli colonies per 100ml of wastewater effluent reached the receiving water. The highest resistance was found in E. coli strains of raw wastewater and the lowest in isolates of treated wastewater effluent. Thus, wastewater treatment is an efficient barrier to decrease the residual FQ levels and the number of resistant bacteria entering ambient waters. Due to the lack of municipal wastewater treatment plants, the onsite treatment of hospital wastewater before discharging into municipal sewers should be considered as a viable option and consequently implemented.
    Chemosphere 07/2008; 72(6):968-73. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.03.009 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "For the analysis of the anthracyclines, sample enrichment by a factor 100 was performed using solid phase extraction columns (C8 columns) followed by analysis using HPLC (Agilent, 1090). Substances were identified by their retention time in the fluorescence scan (fluorescence detection) and quantified by peak area (Mahnik et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cytostatic agents are applied in cancer therapy and subsequently excreted into hospital wastewater. As these substances are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic for reproduction, they should be removed from wastewater at their source of origin. In this study the fate and effects of the cancerostatic platinum compounds (CPC) cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and the anthracyclines doxorubicin, daunorubicin and epirubicin were investigated in hospital wastewater. Wastewater from the in-patient treatment ward of a hospital in Vienna was collected and monitored for the occurrence of the selected drugs. A calculation model was established to spot the correlation between administered dosage and measured concentrations. To investigate the fate of the selected substances during wastewater treatment, the oncologic wastewater was treated in a pilot membrane bioreactor system (MBR) and in downstream advanced wastewater treatment processes (adsorption to activated carbon and UV-treatment). Genotoxic effects of the oncologic wastewater were assessed before and after wastewater treatment followed by a risk assessment. Monitoring concentrations of the selected cytostatics in the oncologic wastewater were in line with calculated concentrations. Due to different mechanisms (adsorption, biodegradation) in the MBR-system 5 - FU and the anthracyclines were removed < LOD, whereas CPC were removed by 60%. In parallel, genotoxic effects could be reduced significantly by the MBR-system. The risk for humans, the aquatic and terrestrial environment by hospital wastewater containing cytostatic drugs was classified as small in a preliminary risk assessment.
    Water Science & Technology 02/2007; 56(12):141-9. DOI:10.2166/wst.2007.828 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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