Development of an analytical method for the determination of anthracyclines in hospital effluents.
ABSTRACT Little is known about the fate of cytostatics after their elimination from humans into the environment. Being often very toxic compounds, their quantification in hospital effluents may be necessary to individualise the putative magnitude of pollution problems. We therefore developed a method for the determination of the very important group of anthracyclines (doxorubicin, epirubicin, and daunorubicin) in hospital effluents. Waste water samples were enriched by solid phase extraction (concentration factor 100), analysed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and monitored by fluorescence detection. This method is reproducible and accurate within a range of 0.1-5 micro g l(-1) for all compounds (limits of quantification: 0.26-0.29 micro g l(-1) ; recoveries >80%). The applicability of the method was proven by chemical analysis of hospital sewage samples (range: 0.1-1.4 micro g l(-1) epirubicin and 0.1-0.5 micro g l(-1) doxorubicin). Obtained over a time period of one month, the results were in line with those calculated by an input-output model. These investigations show that the examined cytostatics are easily detectable and that the presented method is suitable to estimate the dimension of pharmaceutical contamination originating from hospital effluents.
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ABSTRACT: Aim of this study was the evaluation of the genotoxic activities of hospital wastewaters. Samples from an oncological ward of the general hospital of Vienna, Austria, were tested in the Salmonella/microsome assay in strains TA98, TA100 and TA1535 with or without metabolic activation, and in the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay with primary rat hepatocytes. In the bacterial tests, consistently negative results were obtained while in the experiments with liver cells a significant and dose-dependent induction of DNA damage (up to two-fold over the background) was found. Membrane filtration resulted in a substantial (62-77%) reduction of these effects, while additional treatments (activated carbon filtration and UV-irradiation) did not lead to a further decrease of the genotoxic activity of the samples. SCGE experiments with cisplatin, carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil, which were detected in the water samples, showed that these cytostatics cause a significant induction of DNA damage only at concentrations that are substantially higher than those in the native waters. These findings indicate that other chemicals, possibly quaternary ammonium compounds, account for the effects of the hospital wastewaters.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 12/2008; 672(2):69-75. · 2.85 Impact Factor
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2010; 28(13):e209; author reply e210. · 18.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A trace analytical procedure was developed to assay the anticancer drugs methotrexate, azathioprine, doxorubicin, doxorubicinol, vincristine, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and procarbazine in water samples from sewage treatment plants. After concentration and purification using Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges and Oasis WAX cartridges, the analytes were separated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with the electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry operating in the positive ion mode. The method showed good precision and accuracy. Recoveries of all analytes were in the range of 45.3-108.9% with relative standard deviations between 2.4-24.5%. The limits of detection for influent and effluent sewage water were in the range of 0.6-7.0 ng/L and 0.5-3.5 ng/L, respectively. It is expected that this method will be applied to investigate the environmental occurrence of anticancer drugs in sewage water.Journal of chromatographic science 01/2010; 48(10):781-9. · 0.88 Impact Factor