Synthesis and enhancing effect of transkarbam 12 on the transdermal delivery of theophylline, clotrimazole, flobufen, and griseofulvin.
ABSTRACT Dodecyl-6-aminohexanoate (DDEAC) is a transdermal permeation enhancer with excellent activity, low toxicity, and no dermal irritation. We hypothesized that DDEAC reacts with air CO2 to form a two-chain ammonium carbamate--Transkarbam 12 (T12)--which is responsible for the enhancing effect.
DDEAC and T12 were synthesized, their structures were confirmed by spectral methods, and their enhancing activity was studied using the Franz diffusion cell and human skin. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for determination of T12, and its biodegradability was evaluated using porcine esterase.
Only the carbamate salt T12 was responsible for the high enhancing activity; DDEAC tested under argon to avoid reaction with CO2 was inactive. T12 enhanced transdermal permeation of drugs covering a wide range of physicochemical properties, including theophylline (enhancement ratio up to 55.6), clotrimazole (7.7), flobufen (5.0), and griseofulvin (24). The activity was pH-dependent, further confirming the importance of the carbamate structure. The metabolization of T12 followed a second-order kinetics with t(1/2) = 31 min.
Our results indicate that T12 is a promising biodegradable permeation enhancer for a wide range of drugs, and the structurally novel group of carbamate enhancers warrants further investigation.
Article: Penetration enhancers.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: One long-standing approach for improving transdermal drug delivery uses penetration enhancers (also called sorption promoters or accelerants) which penetrate into skin to reversibly decrease the barrier resistance. Numerous compounds have been evaluated for penetration enhancing activity, including sulphoxides (such as dimethylsulphoxide, DMSO), Azones (e.g. laurocapram), pyrrolidones (for example 2-pyrrolidone, 2P), alcohols and alkanols (ethanol, or decanol), glycols (for example propylene glycol, PG, a common excipient in topically applied dosage forms), surfactants (also common in dosage forms) and terpenes. Many potential sites and modes of action have been identified for skin penetration enhancers; the intercellular lipid matrix in which the accelerants may disrupt the packing motif, the intracellular keratin domains or through increasing drug partitioning into the tissue by acting as a solvent for the permeant within the membrane. Further potential mechanisms of action, for example with the enhancers acting on desmosomal connections between corneocytes or altering metabolic activity within the skin, or exerting an influence on the thermodynamic activity/solubility of the drug in its vehicle are also feasible, and are also considered in this review.Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 04/2004; 56(5):603-18. · 12.89 Impact Factor
- Chemical Reviews 11/2003; 103(10):3857-98. · 41.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The synthesis of epsilon-aminocaproic acid esters is described. Two representative members from a group of five of the 1-alkyl homologues synthetized as flexible analogues of 1-alkylazacyclohepatanone derivatives were evaluated in vitro for their effectiveness on the transport of theophylline through the excised human cadaver skin in comparison with Azone. The 1-octyl- and 1-dodecyl-epsilon-aminocaproic acid esters (OCEAC and DDEAC) show excellent penetration enhancement. Donor samples contained 2.5% theophylline and 1% enhancers tested in three different vehicles. Fluxes of theophylline were increased with OCEAC about 19 times from olive oil, 45 times from water, and about 38 times from water-propylene glycol (3:2) vehicle toward controls (with DDEAC about 17, 39, and 35 times, respectively) and they were markedly higher than Azone under the given conditions. Acute LD50's (i.p. in mice) of OCEAC (DDEAC) were 245 mg/kg (352 mg/kg), with a slightly lower toxicity than Azone. OCEAC and DDEAC did not exhibit acute dermal irritation in vivo on rabbits at a 5% concentration in white petrolatum.Pharmaceutical Research 08/1993; 10(7):1015-9. · 4.74 Impact Factor