Is RNA interference involved in intrinsic antiviral immunity in mammals?
ABSTRACT RNA interference constitutes a key component of the innate immune response to viral infection in both plants and invertebrate animals and has been postulated to have a similar protective function in mammals. This perspective reviews the available data addressing whether RNA interference forms part of the mammalian innate immune response and concludes that the popular hypothesis in favor of that possibility remains far from proven and may not be valid.
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ABSTRACT: RNA interference (RNAi) is an established antiviral defense mechanism in plants and invertebrates. Whether RNAi serves a similar function in mammalian cells remains unresolved. We find that in some cell types, mammalian RNAi activity is reduced shortly after viral infection via poly-ADP-ribosylation of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a core component of RNAi. Well-established antiviral signaling pathways, including RIG-I/MAVS and RNaseL, contribute to inhibition of RISC. In the absence of virus infection, microRNAs repress interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) associated with cell death and proliferation, thus maintaining homeostasis. Upon detection of intracellular pathogen-associated molecular patterns, RISC activity decreases, contributing to increased expression of ISGs. Our results suggest that, unlike in lower eukaryotes, mammalian RISC is not antiviral in some contexts, but rather RISC has been co-opted to negatively regulate toxic host antiviral effectors via microRNAs.Cell host & microbe 09/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2013.09.002 · 12.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs expressed by plants, animals, and some viruses. miRNAs generally function as part of miRNA-induced silencing complexes to modestly repress mRNAs with imperfect sequence complementarity. Over the last years, many different roles of miRNA mediated regulation in the life cycles of mammalian viruses have been uncovered. In this chapter, I will mainly explore four different examples of how cellular miRNAs interact with viruses: the role of miR-155 in viral oncogenesis, viral strategies to eliminate cellular miR-27, the contribution of miR-122 to the replication of hepatitis C virus, and miRNAs as an experimental tool to control virus replication and vector transgene expression. In the final part of this chapter, I will give a brief overview of virally encoded microRNAs.Current topics in microbiology and immunology 01/2013; 371:201-227. DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-37765-5_8 · 3.47 Impact Factor