Aortic stiffness, flow-mediated dilatation and carotid intima-media thickness in obstructive sleep apnea - Non-invasive indicators of atherosclerosis
ABSTRACT Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has a critical association with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and aortic stiffness are early signs of atherosclerosis. The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed in OSA patients using these parameters.
40 patients with OSA showing an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > or =5 (mean age 51.3 +/- 9 years, 32 males) and 24 controls (AHI < 5, mean age 51.9 +/- 5.2 years, 19 males) were enrolled in the study. In all subjects, polysomnographic examination and recordings were performed during sleep. IMT of the carotid artery, endothelium-dependent/-independent vasodilation of the brachial artery and aortic elastic parameters were investigated using high-resolution Doppler echocardiography.
The demographic data of the patients with OSA and controls were not significantly different. Subjects with OSA demonstrated higher values of aortic stiffness (7.1 +/- 1.88 vs. 6.42 +/- 1.56, respectively) and IMT (0.85 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.63 +/- 0.11 mm, p = 0.0001, respectively) but lower distensibility (9.47 +/- 1.33 vs. 11.8 +/- 3.36 cm(2)/dyn/10(6)) and FMD (4.57 +/- 1.3 vs. 6.34 +/- 0.83%, p = 0.0001, respectively) than the controls. The respiratory disturbance index correlated positively with aortic stiffness and IMT and negatively with distensibility and FMD.
We observed blunted endothelium-dependent dilatation, increased carotid IMT and aortic stiffness in patients with OSA compared with matched control subjects. This is evident in the absence of other diseases, suggesting that OSA is an independent cause of atherosclerosis. These simple and non-invasive methods help to detect subclinical atherosclerosis in OSA.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Intima-media thickening (IMT), which is the early finding of carotid artery atherosclerosis, has been shown to be associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In our study, we aimed to assess prospectively the effect of severity of OSAS and snoring on carotid artery IMT. Methods A total of 102 patients who were admitted to sleep laboratory between May 2011 and May 2012 were included in the study. All patients were examined by polysomnography. Common carotid arteries (CCA) and internal carotid arteries (ICA) were evaluated for IMT by carotid Doppler ultrasonography. Results The mean age was 45.9 ± 11.1, with 40 (39.2 %) women and 62 (60.8 %) men. Of 88 OSAS patients who had an apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) of >5, 33 (37.5 %) had mild, 20 (22.7 %) had moderate, and 35 (39.8 %) had severe disease. Fourteen patients who had AHI OSAS, CCA walls were thicker (p = 0.040) and IMT ratios were higher (p = 0.019) compared to mild/moderate OSAS patients. In patients with IMT, age, AHI, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and snoring index were higher compared to patients without IMT (p Conclusion Carotid artery IMT, which is an early finding of atherosclerosis, was found to be highly correlated with OSAS and snoring severity.Sleep And Breathing 05/2014; 19(1). DOI:10.1007/s11325-014-1002-0 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by impaired endothelium-dependant vasodilatation and is an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular consequences. The ease with which endothelial function can be assessed has led to it becoming a useful marker of cardiovascular diseases in research studies. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been independently associated with endothelial dysfunction which may explain the increased risk for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in this population. One possible mechanism for the development of endothelial dysfunction in OSA is through the cyclical pattern of hypoxia and re-oxygenation. This creates a haemostatic imbalance in which nitric oxide bio-availability is reduced and pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic forces prevail. Furthermore the repair capacity of the endothelium to protect itself against this increased damage is diminished. All of these pathways contribute to vascular disease which ultimately gives rise to adverse cardiovascular consequences. This review aims to provide a critical appraisal of the cross-sectional and interventional studies which have investigated micro- and macro-vascular endothelial dysfunction in OSA with emphasis on randomised controlled studies.Sleep Medicine Reviews 06/2014; 20. DOI:10.1016/j.smrv.2014.06.003 · 9.14 Impact Factor