Aortic stiffness, flow-mediated dilatation and carotid intima-media thickness in obstructive sleep apnea - Non-invasive indicators of atherosclerosis
ABSTRACT Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has a critical association with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and aortic stiffness are early signs of atherosclerosis. The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed in OSA patients using these parameters.
40 patients with OSA showing an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > or =5 (mean age 51.3 +/- 9 years, 32 males) and 24 controls (AHI < 5, mean age 51.9 +/- 5.2 years, 19 males) were enrolled in the study. In all subjects, polysomnographic examination and recordings were performed during sleep. IMT of the carotid artery, endothelium-dependent/-independent vasodilation of the brachial artery and aortic elastic parameters were investigated using high-resolution Doppler echocardiography.
The demographic data of the patients with OSA and controls were not significantly different. Subjects with OSA demonstrated higher values of aortic stiffness (7.1 +/- 1.88 vs. 6.42 +/- 1.56, respectively) and IMT (0.85 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.63 +/- 0.11 mm, p = 0.0001, respectively) but lower distensibility (9.47 +/- 1.33 vs. 11.8 +/- 3.36 cm(2)/dyn/10(6)) and FMD (4.57 +/- 1.3 vs. 6.34 +/- 0.83%, p = 0.0001, respectively) than the controls. The respiratory disturbance index correlated positively with aortic stiffness and IMT and negatively with distensibility and FMD.
We observed blunted endothelium-dependent dilatation, increased carotid IMT and aortic stiffness in patients with OSA compared with matched control subjects. This is evident in the absence of other diseases, suggesting that OSA is an independent cause of atherosclerosis. These simple and non-invasive methods help to detect subclinical atherosclerosis in OSA.
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ABSTRACT: Sleep apnea (SA) has been linked with various forms of cardiovascular disease, but little is known about its association with peripheral artery disease (PAD) measured using the ankle-brachial index. This relationship was evaluated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We studied 8367 Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos participants who were 45 to 74 years of age. Sleep symptoms were examined with the self-reported Sleep Health Questionnaire. SA was assessed using an in-home sleep study. Systolic blood pressure was measured in all extremities to compute the ankle-brachial index. PAD was defined as ankle-brachial index <0.90 in either leg. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between moderate-to-severe SA, defined as apnea-hypopnea index ≥15, and the presence of PAD. Analyses were adjusted for covariates. The prevalence of PAD was 4.7% (n=390). The mean apnea-hypopnea index was significantly higher among adults with PAD compared with those without (11.1 versus 8.6 events/h; P=0.046). After adjusting for covariates, moderate-to-severe SA was associated with a 70% increase in the odds of PAD (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.5; P=0.0152). This association was not modified by sex (P=0.8739). However, there was evidence that the association between moderate-to-severe SA and PAD varied by Hispanic/Latino background (P<0.01). Specifically, the odds were stronger in Mexican (adjusted odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.2) and in Puerto Rican Americans (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-4.2) than in other backgrounds. Moderate-to-severe SA is associated with higher odds of PAD in Hispanic/Latino adults. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 02/2015; 35(3). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.304625 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by impaired endothelium-dependant vasodilatation and is an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular consequences. The ease with which endothelial function can be assessed has led to it becoming a useful marker of cardiovascular diseases in research studies. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been independently associated with endothelial dysfunction which may explain the increased risk for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in this population. One possible mechanism for the development of endothelial dysfunction in OSA is through the cyclical pattern of hypoxia and re-oxygenation. This creates a haemostatic imbalance in which nitric oxide bio-availability is reduced and pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic forces prevail. Furthermore the repair capacity of the endothelium to protect itself against this increased damage is diminished. All of these pathways contribute to vascular disease which ultimately gives rise to adverse cardiovascular consequences. This review aims to provide a critical appraisal of the cross-sectional and interventional studies which have investigated micro- and macro-vascular endothelial dysfunction in OSA with emphasis on randomised controlled studies.Sleep Medicine Reviews 06/2014; 20. DOI:10.1016/j.smrv.2014.06.003 · 9.14 Impact Factor