Facile syntheses of acyl dihydroxyacetone phosphates and lysophosphatidic acids having different acyl groups.
ABSTRACT In this study, we report novel and simple chemical syntheses of acyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and 1-acyl glycero-3-phosphate [lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)], key intermediaries in the formation of glycerolipids containing ester and ether bonds. The synthesis of acyl DHAPs involved acylating the dimethyl ketal of DHAP by acid anhydride using 4-pyrrolidinopyridine as the catalyst, and the resulting product was deketalized by HClO(4) in acetone to produce acyl DHAP. The acid anhydride was either added directly or generated in the reaction mixture from the corresponding fatty acid using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as the condensing agent. Using these methods, a number of acyl DHAPs having short-, medium-, and long-chain saturated and unsaturated acyl groups were synthesized, with overall yields from 37% to 75%. The activities of these acyl DHAPs as substrates for guinea pig liver peroxisomal acyl DHAP:NADPH reductase and alkyl DHAP synthase were then determined. Next, starting from these acyl DHAPs, a variety of LPAs were synthesized by chemical reduction of the ketone group. Biological activities of these LPAs were determined by measuring their relative abilities to release intracellular Ca(2+) via the LPA receptor. A combined chemical-enzymatic method is also described to prepare the natural LPA from the racemic mixture.