Gene therapy of the brain in the dog model of Hurler's syndrome
ABSTRACT A defect of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) interrupts the degradation of glycosaminoglycans in mucopolysaccharidosis type I, causing severe neurological manifestations in children with Hurler's syndrome. Delivery of the missing enzyme through stereotactic injection of adeno-associated virus vectors coding for IDUA prevents neuropathology in affected mice. We examined the efficacy and the safety of this approach in enzyme-deficient dogs.
Because deficient dogs raise antibodies against IDUA in response to infusion, intracerebral vector injections were combined with an immunosuppressive regimen.
Treatment was tolerated well. We observed broad dispersion of vector genomes in the brain of efficiently immunosuppressed dogs. The delivery of IDUA to large areas, which could encompass the entire brain, prevented glycosaminoglycan and secondary ganglioside accumulations. This condition was associated with drastic reduction of neuropathology throughout the encephalon. In contrast, vector injection combined with partial immunosuppression was associated with subacute encephalitis, production of antibodies against IDUA in brain tissues, and elimination of genetically modified cells.
Gene therapy directed to the entire brain is feasible and may be beneficial to children with Hurler's syndrome. The possibility of subacute encephalitis emphasizes the importance of preventing immune response against IDUA, a problem that needs to be considered in similar therapies for other genetic defects.
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ABSTRACT: Canine adenovirus type 2 vectors (CAV-2) are promising tools to treat global central nervous system (CNS) disorders due to their preferential transduction of neurons and efficient retrograde axonal transport. Here we tested the potential of a helper-dependent CAV-2 vector expressing ß-glucuronidase (HD-RIGIE) in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII), a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency in ß-glucuronidase activity. MPS VII leads to glycosaminoglycan accumulation into enlarged vesicles in peripheral tissues and the CNS, resulting in peripheral and neuronal dysfunction. Following intracranial administration of HD-RIGIE, we show long-term expression of ß-glucuronidase that led to correction of neuropathology around the injection site and in distal areas. This phenotypic correction correlated with a decrease in secondary-elevated lysosomal enzyme activity and glycosaminoglycan levels, consistent with global biochemical correction. Moreover, HD-RIGIE-treated mice show significant cognitive improvement. Thus, injections of HD-CAV-2 vectors in the brain allow a global and sustained expression and may have implications for a brain therapy in patients with lysosomal storage disease.Human gene therapy 12/2013; 25(3). DOI:10.1089/hum.2013.152 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Viral vector-mediated gene transfer has emerged as a powerful means to target transgene expression in the central nervous system. Here we characterized the efficacy of serotypes 1 and 5 recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) after stereotaxic delivery to the neonatal rat and minipig striatum. The efficiency of GFP expression and the phenotype of GFP-positive cells were assessed within the forebrain at different time points up to 12 months after surgery. Both rAAV1-GFP and rAAV5-GFP delivery resulted in transduction of the striatum as well as striatal input and output areas, including large parts of the cortex. In both species, rAAV5 resulted in a more widespread transgene expression compared to rAAV1. In neonatal rats, rAAV5 also transduced several other areas such as the olfactory bulbs, hippocampus, and septum. Phenotypic analysis of the GFP-positive cells, performed using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, showed that most of the GFP-positive cells by either serotype were NeuN-positive neuronal profiles. The rAAV5 vector further displayed the ability to transduce non-neuronal cell types in both rats and pigs, albeit at a low frequency. Our results show that striatal delivery of rAAV5 vectors in the neonatal brain represents a useful tool to express genes of interest both in the basal ganglia and the neocortex. Furthermore, we apply, for the first time, viral vector-mediated gene transfer to the pig brain providing the opportunity to study effects of genetic manipulation in this non-primate large animal species. Finally, we generated an atlas of the Göttingen minipig brain for guiding future studies in this large animal species.Experimental Neurology 12/2009; 222(1):70-85. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.12.009 · 4.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are inherited metabolic disorders caused by deficient activity of a single lysosomal enzyme or other defects resulting in deficient catabolism of large substrates in lysosomes. There are more than 40 forms of inherited LSDs known to occur in humans, with an aggregate incidence estimated at 1 in 7,000 live births. Clinical signs result from the inability of lysosomes to degrade large substrates; because most lysosomal enzymes are ubiquitously expressed, a deficiency in a single enzyme can affect multiple organ systems. Thus LSDs are associated with high morbidity and mortality and represent a significant burden on patients, their families, the health care system, and society. Because lysosomal enzymes are trafficked by a mannose 6-phosphate receptor mechanism, normal enzyme provided to deficient cells can be localized to the lysosome to reduce and prevent storage. However, many LSDs remain untreatable, and gene therapy holds the promise for effective therapy. Other therapies for some LSDs do exist, or are under evaluation, including heterologous bone marrow or cord blood transplantation (BMT), enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), and substrate reduction therapy (SRT), but these treatments are associated with significant concerns, including high morbidity and mortality (BMT), limited positive outcomes (BMT), incomplete response to therapy (BMT, ERT, and SRT), life-long therapy (ERT, SRT), and cost (BMT, ERT, SRT). Gene therapy represents a potential alternative, albeit with its own attendant concerns, including levels and persistence of expression and insertional mutagenesis resulting in neoplasia. Naturally occurring animal homologues of LSDs have been described in all common domestic animals (and in some that are less common) and these animal models play a critical role in evaluating the efficacy and safety of therapy.ILAR journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 02/2009; 50(2):112-21. DOI:10.1093/ilar.50.2.112 · 1.05 Impact Factor