Gene therapy of the brain in the dog model of Hurler's syndrome.
ABSTRACT A defect of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) interrupts the degradation of glycosaminoglycans in mucopolysaccharidosis type I, causing severe neurological manifestations in children with Hurler's syndrome. Delivery of the missing enzyme through stereotactic injection of adeno-associated virus vectors coding for IDUA prevents neuropathology in affected mice. We examined the efficacy and the safety of this approach in enzyme-deficient dogs.
Because deficient dogs raise antibodies against IDUA in response to infusion, intracerebral vector injections were combined with an immunosuppressive regimen.
Treatment was tolerated well. We observed broad dispersion of vector genomes in the brain of efficiently immunosuppressed dogs. The delivery of IDUA to large areas, which could encompass the entire brain, prevented glycosaminoglycan and secondary ganglioside accumulations. This condition was associated with drastic reduction of neuropathology throughout the encephalon. In contrast, vector injection combined with partial immunosuppression was associated with subacute encephalitis, production of antibodies against IDUA in brain tissues, and elimination of genetically modified cells.
Gene therapy directed to the entire brain is feasible and may be beneficial to children with Hurler's syndrome. The possibility of subacute encephalitis emphasizes the importance of preventing immune response against IDUA, a problem that needs to be considered in similar therapies for other genetic defects.
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ABSTRACT: Canine alpha-L-iduronidase (alpha-ID) deficiency, a model of the human storage disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), is an ideal system in which to evaluate the clinical benefit of genetically corrected hematopoietic stem cells. We performed adoptive transfer of genetically corrected autologous hematopoietic cells in dogs with alpha-ID deficiency. Large volume marrow collections were performed on five alpha-ID-deficient dogs. Marrow mononuclear cells in long-term marrow cultures (LTMCs) were exposed on three occasions during 3 weeks of culture to retroviral vectors bearing the normal canine alpha-ID cDNA. Transduced LTMC cells from deficient dogs expressed enzymatically active alpha-ID at 10 to 200 times the levels seen in normal dogs. An average of 32% of LTMC-derived clonogenic hematopoietic cells were provirus positive by polymerase chain reaction and about half of these expressed alpha-ID. Approximately 10(7) autologous gene-modified LTMC cells/kg were infused into nonmyeloablated recipients. Proviral DNA was detected in up to 10% of individual marrow-derived hematopoietic colonies and in 0.01% to 1% of blood and marrow leukocytes at up to 2 to 3 years postinfusion. Despite good evidence for engraftment of provirally marked cells, neither alpha-ID enzyme nor alpha-ID transcripts were detected in any dog. We evaluated immune responses against alpha-ID and transduced cells. Humoral responses to alpha-ID and serum components of the culture media (fetal bovine and horse sera and bovine serum albumin) were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cellular immune responses to autologous alpha-ID but not neo(r) transduced cells were demonstrated by lymphocyte proliferation assays. To abrogate potential immune phenomena, four affected dogs received posttransplant cyclosporine A. Whereas immune responses were dampened in these dogs, alpha-ID activity remained undetectable. In none of the dogs engrafted with genetically corrected cells was there evidence for clinical improvement. Our data suggest that, whereas the alpha-ID cDNA may be transferred and maintained in approximately 5% of hematopoietic progenitors, the potential of this approach appears limited by the levels of provirally derived enzyme that are expressed in vivo and by the host's response to cultured and transduced hematopoietic cells expressing foreign proteins.Blood 04/1999; 93(6):1895-905. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There are more than 40 different forms of inherited lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) known to occur in humans and the aggregate incidence has been estimated to approach 1 in 7000 live births. Most LSDs are associated with high morbidity and mortality and represent a significant burden on patients, their families, and health care providers. Except for symptomatic therapies, many LSDs remain untreatable, and gene therapy is among the only viable treatment options potentially available. Therapies for some LSDs do exist, or are under evaluation, including heterologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT), enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), and substrate reduction therapy (SRT), but these treatment options are associated with significant concerns, including high morbidity and mortality (BMT), limited positive outcomes (BMT), incomplete response to therapy (BMT, ERT, and SRT), life-long therapy (ERT, SRT), and cost (BMT, ERT, SRT). Gene therapy represents a potential alternative therapy, albeit a therapy with its own attendant concerns. Animal models of LSDs play a critical role in evaluating the efficacy and safety of therapy for many of these conditions. Naturally occurring animal homologs of LSDs have been described in the mouse, rat, dog, cat, guinea pig, emu, quail, goat, cattle, sheep, and pig. In this review we discuss those animal models that have been used in gene therapy experiments and those with promise for future evaluations.The Journal of Gene Medicine 06/2004; 6(5):481-506. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genetic diseases affecting the brain typically have widespread lesions that require global correction. Lysosomal storage diseases are good candidates for central nervous system gene therapy, because active enzyme from genetically corrected cells can be secreted and taken up by surrounding diseased cells, and only small amounts of enzyme (<5% of normal) are required to reverse storage lesions. Injection of gene transfer vectors into multiple sites in the mouse brain has been shown to mediate widespread reversal of storage lesions in several disease models. To study a brain closer in size to the human brain, we evaluated the extent of storage correction mediated by a limited number of adeno-associated virus vector injections in the cat model of human alpha-mannosidosis. The treated cats showed remarkable improvements in clinical neurological signs and in brain myelination assessed by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Postmortem examination showed that storage lesions were greatly reduced throughout the brain, even though gene transfer was limited to the areas surrounding the injection tracks. The data demonstrate that widespread improvement of neuropathology in a large mammalian brain can be achieved using multiple injection sites during one operation and suggest that this could be an effective treatment for the central nervous system component of human lysosomal enzyme deficiencies.Annals of Neurology 04/2005; 57(3):355-64. · 11.19 Impact Factor