Article

AMN107 (nilotinib): a novel and selective inhibitor of BCR-ABL

Department of Adult Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
British Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.82). 06/2006; 94(12):1765-9. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6603170
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are caused by the BCR-ABL oncogene. Imatinib inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of the BCR-ABL protein and is an effective, frontline therapy for chronic-phase CML. However, accelerated or blast-crisis phase CML patients and Ph+ ALL patients often relapse due to drug resistance resulting from the emergence of imatinib-resistant point mutations within the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase domain. This has stimulated the development of new kinase inhibitors that are able to over-ride resistance to imatinib. The novel, selective BCR-ABL inhibitor, AMN107, was designed to fit into the ATP-binding site of the BCR-ABL protein with higher affinity than imatinib. In addition to being more potent than imatinib (IC50< 30 nM) against wild-type BCR-ABL, AMN107 is also significantly active against 32/33 imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL mutants. In preclinical studies, AMN107 demonstrated activity in vitro and in vivo against wild-type and imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL-expressing cells. In phase I/II clinical trials, AMN107 has produced haematological and cytogenetic responses in CML patients, who either did not initially respond to imatinib or developed imatinib resistance. Dasatinib (BMS-354825), which inhibits Abl and Src family kinases, is another promising new clinical candidate for CML that has shown good efficacy in CML patients. In this review, the early characterisation and development of AMN107 is discussed, as is the current status of AMN107 in clinical trials for imatinib-resistant CML and Ph+ ALL. Future trends investigating prediction of mechanisms of resistance to AMN107, and how and where AMN107 is expected to fit into the overall picture for treatment of early-phase CML and imatinib-refractory and late-stage disease are discussed.

0 Followers
 · 
204 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Imatinib has represented a revolution in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), inducing an overall survival never seen with previous therapies. However, with the commonly used dosage of 400 mg, one third of the treated patients does not reach the criteria associated with an optimal outcome and could potentially benefit from a different treatment strategy. Several trials exploring modified imatinib-based treatments or second-generation tyrosine-kinase as front-line therapy have been performed. In some studies, high-dose (800 mg per day) or dose-adapted imatinib or imatinib plus interferon was reported to be able to induce better cytogenetic and molecular responses compared with standard-dose imatinib, although no improvements in progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) have been so far reported. At the moment, these approaches are still considered investigational. On the other side, on the basis of their capacity to induce very fast and deep molecular responses, including major molecular responses (MMRs) and the newly defined very deep molecular responses MR(4) and MR(4.5), and to prevent at least part of the early progressions to AP/BC that still occur during the first 2-3 years from diagnosis, dasatinib and nilotinib have been approved and registered by FDA and EMA as the first-line therapy for CML patients, opening the possibility to use different therapeutic strategies for newly diagnosed CML patients and a consequent intense debate among hematologists.
    Annals of Hematology 04/2015; 94(Supplement 2):123-131. DOI:10.1007/s00277-015-2321-3 · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the occurrence of a reciprocal translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11), resulting in a BCR/ABL gene fusion on the derivative chromosome 22, i.e. the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. During CML progression 60-80% of the cases acquire additional genetic changes. Even though hyperdiploidy is not a rare finding in advanced phase-CML, hyperdiploidy together with a T315I kinase domain (KD) mutation in the BCR-ABL gene has not yet been reported. A complete cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis; molecular biology methods such as quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) and allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO)-PCR; and immunophenotypically confirmed CML in acceleration phase (AP). Our case revealed the presence of hyperdiploidy including multiple copies of the Ph chromosome, presence of b3a2 fusion transcript,T315I mutation in BCR-ABL KD in pre imatinib mesylate (IM) treatment. The ratio of BCR-ABL/ABL expression in post nilotinib treatment was 0.07% on international scale. The patient demonstrated a good response to nilotinib after imatinib failure; while the hyperdiploid clone disappeared the T315I mutation remained during follow-up. The underlying mechanisms and prognostic implications of these cytogenetic abnormalities are discussed.
    Molecular Cytogenetics 12/2014; 7(1). DOI:10.1186/s13039-014-0089-0 · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With the discovery of Philadelphia chromosome, understanding of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) pathobiology has tremendously increased. Development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) targeting the BCR/ABL1 oncoprotein has changed the landscape of the disease. Today, the expected survival of CML patients, if properly managed, is likely to be similar to the general population. Imatinib is the first-approved TKI in CML treatment, and for several years, it was the only option in the frontline setting. Four years ago, second-generation TKIs (nilotinib and dasatinib) were approved as alternative frontline options. Now, clinicians are faced the challenge of making decision for which TKI to chose upfront. Second-generation TKIs have been demonstrated to induce deeper and faster responses compared to imatinib; however, none of three TKIs have been shown to have a clear survival advantage, they all are reasonable options. In contrast, when considering therapy in individual patients, the case may be stronger for a specific TKI. Co-morbidities of the patient and side effect profile of the TKI of interest should be an important consideration in decision making. At present, the cost nilotinib or dasatinib is not remarkably different from imatinib. However, patent for imatinib is expected to expire soon, and it will be available as a generic. Clinicians, then, need to weigh the advantages some patients gain with nilotinib or dasatinib in the frontline setting against the difference in cost. Whatever TKI is chosen as frontline, intolerance, non-compliance, or treatment failure should be recognized early as a prompt intervention increases the chance of achieving best possible response.
    Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11899-015-0254-5 · 2.29 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Download
80 Downloads
Available from
May 28, 2014