AMN107 (nilotinib): a novel and selective inhibitor of BCR-ABL

Department of Adult Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
British Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.82). 06/2006; 94(12):1765-9. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6603170
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are caused by the BCR-ABL oncogene. Imatinib inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of the BCR-ABL protein and is an effective, frontline therapy for chronic-phase CML. However, accelerated or blast-crisis phase CML patients and Ph+ ALL patients often relapse due to drug resistance resulting from the emergence of imatinib-resistant point mutations within the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase domain. This has stimulated the development of new kinase inhibitors that are able to over-ride resistance to imatinib. The novel, selective BCR-ABL inhibitor, AMN107, was designed to fit into the ATP-binding site of the BCR-ABL protein with higher affinity than imatinib. In addition to being more potent than imatinib (IC50< 30 nM) against wild-type BCR-ABL, AMN107 is also significantly active against 32/33 imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL mutants. In preclinical studies, AMN107 demonstrated activity in vitro and in vivo against wild-type and imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL-expressing cells. In phase I/II clinical trials, AMN107 has produced haematological and cytogenetic responses in CML patients, who either did not initially respond to imatinib or developed imatinib resistance. Dasatinib (BMS-354825), which inhibits Abl and Src family kinases, is another promising new clinical candidate for CML that has shown good efficacy in CML patients. In this review, the early characterisation and development of AMN107 is discussed, as is the current status of AMN107 in clinical trials for imatinib-resistant CML and Ph+ ALL. Future trends investigating prediction of mechanisms of resistance to AMN107, and how and where AMN107 is expected to fit into the overall picture for treatment of early-phase CML and imatinib-refractory and late-stage disease are discussed.

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    ABSTRACT: : Treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) with the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib significantly improves patient outcomes. As some patients are unresponsive to imatinib, next generation BCR-ABL inhibitors such as nilotinib have been developed to treat patients with imatinib-resistant CML. The use of some BCR-ABL inhibitors has been associated with bleeding diathesis, and these inhibitors have been shown to inhibit platelet functions, which may explain the hemostasis impairment. Surprisingly, a new TKI, ponatinib, has been associated with a high incidence of severe acute ischemic cardiovascular events. The mechanism of this unexpected adverse effect remains undefined. Objective and Methods: This study used biochemical and functional assays to evaluate whether ponatinib was different from the other BCR-ABL inhibitors with respect to platelet activation, spreading, and aggregation. Results and Conclusions: Our results show that ponatinib, similar to other TKIs, acts as a platelet antagonist. Ponatinib inhibited platelet activation, spreading, granule secretion, and aggregation, likely through broad spectrum inhibition of platelet tyrosine kinase signaling, and also inhibited platelet aggregate formation in whole blood under shear. As our results indicate that pobatinib inhibits platelet function, the adverse cardiovascular events observed in patients taking ponatinib may be the result of the effect of ponatinib on other organs or cell types or disease-specific processes, such as BCR-ABL + cells undergoing apoptosis in response to chemotherapy, or drug-induced adverse effects on the integrity of the vascular endothelium in ponatinib-treated patients.
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    ABSTRACT: Effects of single and repeated doses of nilotinib on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, a cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) substrate, were assessed in two separate studies. In the single-dose nilotinib study, 18 healthy subjects were randomized to 6 treatment sequences to receive single-dose of nilotinib 600 mg, midazolam 4 mg and coadministration of both in a crossover manner. In the repeated-dose nilotinib study, 19 chronic myeloid leukemia patients took a single-dose of midazolam 2 mg on Day 1 and 13, and nilotinib 400 mg twice daily from Day 2 to 13. In the single-dose study, the geometric mean ratio of the area under the plasma concentration time curve extrapolated to infinity (AUCinf ) of midazolam plus nilotinib versus midazolam was 1.3 (90% CI, 1.2-1.5) and the maximum observed serum concentration (Cmax ) was 1.2 (90% CI, 1.0-1.4). In the repeated-dose study, the values for AUCinf and Cmax were 2.6 (90% CI, 2.1-3.3) and 2.0 (90% CI, 1.7-2.4), respectively. These results indicate that single-dose and repeated-dose administration of nilotinib results in weak and moderate inhibition of CYP3A, respectively. Therefore, appropriate monitoring and dose adjustment may be needed for drugs that are mainly metabolized by CYP3A, and have narrow therapeutic index, when coadministered with nilotinib. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of arsenic trioxide (ATO) and nilotinib (AMN107, Tasigna) alone or in combination on the proliferation and differentiation of primary leukemic cells from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the blast crisis phase (CML-BC). Cells were isolated from the bone marrow of CML-BC patients and were treated with 1 μM ATO and 5 nM nilotinib, either alone or in combination. Cell proliferation was evaluated using a MTT assay. Cell morphology and the content of hemoglobin were examined with Wright-Giemsa staining and benzidine staining, respectively. The expression of cell surface markers was determined using flow cytometric analysis. The levels of mRNA and protein were analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. ATO and nilotinib alone or in combination suppressed cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent pattern (P < 0.01 vs. control). Drug treatments promoted erythroid differentiation of CML-BC cells, with a decreased nuclei/cytoplasm ratio but increased hemoglobin content and glycophorin A (GPA) expression (P < 0.01 compared with control). In addition, macrophage and granulocyte lineage differentiation was also induced after drug treatment. The mRNA and protein levels of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia protein 1 (TAL1) and B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) were both upregulated after 3 days of ATO and Nilotinib treatment. Our findings indicated that ATO and nilotinib treatment alone or in combination greatly suppressed cell proliferation but promoted the differentiation of CML-BC cells towards multiple-lineages. Nilotinib alone preferentially induced erythroid differentiation while combined treatment with ATO preferentially induced macrophage and granulocyte lineage differentiation.
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