Preliminary evidence of reduced occipital GABA concentrations in puerperal women: A 1H-MRS study
ABSTRACT Childbirth is associated with rapid neuroendocrine fluctuations, which are thought to contribute to the phatogenesis of postpartum major depression (PPD).
The aim of this proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) study was two-fold; 1) to examine whether puerperium is associated with alterations in occipital cortex gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations and 2) to determine whether such alterations may be more prominent in women with PPD.
Nine women with PPD, 14 postpartum healthy controls, and ten healthy follicular phase females underwent 1H-MRS at 2.1 Tesla to measure occipital cortex GABA concentrations. Postpartum women were scanned within 6 months of delivery and prior to resumption of menstruation. Healthy non-puerperal controls, drawn from a historical sample, were scanned during the early to mid-follicular phase when ovarian hormone levels would be similar to those found in the puerperium. GABA data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, and regression models were used to explore the relationship between cortical GABA concentrations and blood levels of estradiol, progesterone, and neurosteroids.
Cortical GABA and plasma allopregnanolone (ALLO) concentrations were reduced in both groups of postpartum women, regardless of PPD diagnosis, compared to healthy follicular phase women. There was no correlation between cortical GABA concentrations and estradiol, progesterone, ALLO, or pregnenolone (PREG).
This study is the first to describe reductions in occipital cortex GABA levels in the postpartum period, a time of increased vulnerability to mood disturbances in women. The concomitant reduction in peripheral ALLO levels provides further evidence of alterations in the balance between cortical excitation and inhibition during the puerperium. Women with PPD may represent a subgroup of women who fail to adequately adapt to this alteration in the neuroendocrine milieu.
- SourceAvailable from: Christian Beste
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- "l . 2009 , 2011 ) . It is therefore conceivable that psychophysiological correlates of these functions may also show modulations by the striatal GABAergic system . A limitation of the study is that the menstrual cycle of the female participants and hence levels of steroid hor - mones which have a known impact on GABA levels ( Harada et al . 2011 ; Epperson et al . 2006 ) was not con - trolled for . Due to the low number of females in the present study , it was also not possible to run reliable regression analyses using the factor ' sex ' as predictor in the regression models . A further limitation of the study may be the lack of a control region used for GABA measurements that may be useful to determi"
ABSTRACT: Response inhibition processes are important for performance monitoring and are mediated via a network constituted by different cortical areas and basal ganglia nuclei. At the basal ganglia level, striatal GABAergic medium spiny neurons are known to be important for response selection, but the importance of the striatal GABAergic system for response inhibition processes remains elusive. Using a novel combination of behavior al, EEG and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data, we examine the relevance of the striatal GABAergic system for response inhibition processes. The study shows that striatal GABA levels modulate the efficacy of response inhibition processes. Higher striatal GABA levels were related to better response inhibition performance. We show that striatal GABA modulate specific subprocesses of response inhibition related to pre-motor inhibitory processes through the modulation of neuronal synchronization processes. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing direct evidence for the relevance of the striatal GABAergic system for response inhibition functions and their cortical electrophysiological correlates in humans.Brain Structure and Function 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00429-014-0873-y · 4.57 Impact Factor
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- "Likewise, elevated allopregnanolone levels have been reported in human adolescents in association with acute alcohol intoxication (Torres & Ortega, 2003, 2004). Of note, consistent with previous adult GABA MRS data (Epperson et al., 2002, 2005, 2006), there is evidence for an influence of menstrual cycle phase, when circulating sex hormones vary, on brain GABA levels measured in both adolescents and emerging adults. Luteal phase (peak estrogen at ovulation followed by declining levels, and high levels of the neuroactive steroid, progesterone ) females exhibit lower GABA levels relative to females tested during the follicular phase (low estrogen, low progesterone) (Silveri et al., 2013). "
ABSTRACT: There is a considerable body of literature demonstrating that adolescence is a unique age period, which includes rapid and dramatic maturation of behavioral, cognitive, hormonal and neurobiological systems. Most notably, adolescence is also a period of unique responsiveness to alcohol effects, with both hyposensitivity and hypersensitivity observed to the various effects of alcohol. Multiple neurotransmitter systems are undergoing fine-tuning during this critical period of brain development, including those that contribute to the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. The role of developmental maturation of the γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) system, however, has received less attention in contributing to age-specific alcohol sensitivities. This review integrates GABA findings from human magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies as they may translate to understanding adolescent-specific responsiveness to alcohol effects. Better understanding of the vulnerability of the GABA system both during adolescent development, and in psychiatric conditions that include alcohol dependence, could point to a putative mechanism, boosting brain GABA, that may have increased effectiveness for treating alcohol abuse disorders.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.03.001 · 7.75 Impact Factor
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- "With an inadequate decline, and ongoing elevated MAO-A V T levels in the PFC and ACC, either PPD, or, a tendency to cry due to depressed mood is likely. Not having a full PPD despite the presence of elevated MAO-A V T in the PFC and ACC may reflect greater resiliency against elevated MAO-A levels or against PPD due to a lesser presence of the other markers associated with PPD (such as reduced GABA levels, GABA receptor abnormalities, reduced 5-HT 1A binding, reduced neurogenesis etc. (Epperson et al, 2006;Galea et al, 2008;Maguire et al, 2008;Moses-Kolko et al, 2008;Suda et al, 2008). "
ABSTRACT: Postpartum depression (PPD) has a prevalence rate of 13% and a similarly high proportion of women report a subclinical state of one or more MDE symptoms. The aim was to investigate whether monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) VT, an index of MAO-A density, is increased in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex (PFC and ACC), during PPD or when a PPD spectrum symptom, greater predisposition to crying, is present. MAO-A is an enzyme that increases in density after estrogen decline, and has several functions including creating oxidative stress, influencing apoptosis and monoamine metabolism. Fifty seven women were recruited including 15 first onset, antidepressant naive, PPD subjects, 12 postpartum healthy who cry due to sad mood, 15 asymptomatic postpartum healthy women and 15 healthy women not recently pregnant. Each underwent [(11)C]-harmine positron emission tomography (PET) scanning to measure MAO-A VT. Both PPD, and greater predisposition to crying were associated with greater MAO-A VT in the PFC and ACC (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), group effect, F21,135 =1.856; p=0.019; mean combined region elevation 21% and 14% in PPD and crying groups, respectively, relative to postpartum asymptomatic). Greater MAO-A VT in the PFC and ACC represents a new biomarker in PPD, and the PPD symptom of predisposition to crying. Novel strategies for preventing PPD (and some PPD symptoms) may be possible by avoiding environmental conditions that elevate MAO-A level and enhancing conditions that normalize MAO-A level. These findings also argue for clinical trials in PPD with the newer, well-tolerated MAO-A inhibitor antidepressants.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 30 July 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.190.Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 07/2014; 40(2). DOI:10.1038/npp.2014.190 · 8.68 Impact Factor