Harnessing actin dynamics for clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7:404-414

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3202, USA.
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 37.81). 07/2006; 7(6):404-14. DOI: 10.1038/nrm1940
Source: PubMed


Actin polymerization often occurs at the plasma membrane to drive the protrusion of lamellipodia and filopodia at the leading edge of migrating cells. A role for actin polymerization in another cellular process that involves the reshaping of the plasma membrane--namely endocytosis--has recently been established. Live-cell imaging studies are shedding light on the order and timing of the molecular events and mechanisms of actin function during endocytosis.

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    • "Down-regulation of Ag uptake activity during the transition from actively sampling immature DCs to uptake-inactive mature DCs has been linked to a loss of active Cdc42 during DC maturation (Garrett et al., 2000). However, receptor-mediated endocytosis depends on the cooperation of actin filaments with other proteins, such as clathrin, for internalization (Schafer, 2002; Kaksonen et al., 2006) and is therefore independent of RhoGTPases and not down-regulated in mature DCs (Garrett et al., 2000; Platt et al., 2010). This allows efficient internalization of exogenous Ag's upon binding to surface receptors during all stages of DC maturation (Allenspach et al., 2008; Platt et al., 2010). "

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    • "Actin filament assembly can generate mechanical forces to induce membrane deformation (Kaksonen et al., 2006) and to facilitate vesicle trafficking, providing a platform to affect receptor turnover (Zech et al., 2012). It is not clear whether formins being the largest group of actin nucleation and assembly factors play a role in integrin traffic and function. "
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    • "Arcs do not directly associate with focal adhesions but are linked to these cell-matrix interaction sites through ''dorsal stress fibers'' (radial fibers), which are non-contractile actin bundles connected to focal adhesions at their distal end (Tojkander et al., 2012; Burridge and Wittchen, 2013). Furthermore, eukaryotic cells contain an array of other actin-based structures that contribute to diverse cellular processes such as endocytosis, mitochondrial fission, and extracellular matrix degradation (Kaksonen et al., 2006; Schoumacher et al., 2010; Korobova et al., 2013). Importantly, actin filaments do not function in isolation but collaborate with two other cytoskeletal networks: intermediate filaments and microtubules (Huber et al., 2015). "
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