Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostate: a clinicopathologic summary of 7 cases of a rare manifestation of advanced prostate cancer.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University Health Network, Mt Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.59). 06/2006; 30(6):684-93.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer is typically detected by immunohistochemistry as single cells in conventional adenocarcinoma. Prostatic NE tumors, such as carcinoid or small cell carcinoma, are rare and large cell NE carcinoma (LCNEC) is described only in case reports. We identified 7 cases of LCNEC and compiled their clinicopathologic characteristics. In 6 cases, there was a history of adenocarcinoma treated with hormone therapy for a mean of 2.4 years (range: 2 to 3 y). The remaining case was de novo LCNEC. LCNEC was incidentally diagnosed in palliative transurethral resection specimens in 5 cases. The mean patient age at diagnosis with LCNEC was 67 years (range: 43 to 81 y). LCNEC comprised solid sheets and ribbons of cells with abundant pale to amphophilic cytoplasm, large nuclei with coarse chromatin and prominent nucleoli along with brisk mitotic activity and foci of necrosis. In 6 cases, there were foci of admixed adenocarcinoma, 4 of which showed hormone therapy effects. LCNEC was strongly positive for CD56, CD57, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and P504S/alpha methylacyl CoA racemase. There was strong bcl-2 overexpression, expression of MIB1, and p53 in >50% of nuclei, focally positive staining for prostate specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase and negative androgen receptor staining. Follow-up was available for 6 patients, all of who died with metastatic disease at mean of 7 months (range: 3 to 12 mo) after platinum-based chemotherapy. LCNEC of prostate is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that typically manifests after long-term hormonal therapy for prostatic adenocarcinoma and likely arises through clonal progression under the selection pressure of therapy.

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    ABSTRACT: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate (LCNEC), de novo in particular, is an extremely rare entity that has only been described in the literature in case reports. Historically, the majority of the cases of LCNEC reported in the literature represent typical prostatic adenocarcinomas that transformed after long standing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). These cases were admixed with histological areas of usual adenocarcinoma and showed hybrid features of both neuroendocrine and usual adenocarcinoma. Here we present a case of an LCNEC without admixed areas of usual prostatic adenocarcinoma arising de novo in a patient without prior history of hormonal therapy. The tumor also shows morphologic evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation; composed of large sheets and nests of cells with moderate amphophilic cytoplasm with peripheral palisading, and vesicular clumpy chromatin with prominent nucleoli. The carcinoma's prostatic origin is indicated by positive immunohistochemical staining for PSA, PAP, PSMA, racemase, and Nkx3.1. Diffusely positive staining for chromogranin and synaptophysin, as well as the presence of secretory granules in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells demonstrated by electron microscopy supports the NE differentiation. NE prostate cancer usually does not express AR and is refractory to ADT therapy while AR and ERG are positive in this case. In summary, we report a de novo LCNEC of the prostate with review of literature, in particular, clinical implications.
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine cells are one of the epithelial populations in the prostate. Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) has been observed in prostate cancer. In addition to small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and carcinoid tumors of the prostate, prostatic adenocarcinomas may have NED. The incidence and clinical relevance of NED in prostatic adenocarcinoma is not clearly understood because of conflicting results in the reported studies, and evaluation of NED is not routinely performed in clinical practice. This review is an overall synthesis with an aim to develop a more comprehensive understanding and practical approach towards the current knowledge of neuroendocrine differentiation. In this review we are stratifying these lesions into separate subtypes based on histologic parameters such as tumor morphology, neuroendocrine cell density and distribution and clinical parameters. We also want to identify current controversies and confusing issues not totally resolved in this topic for further investigations. Eventually a clearer understanding of this phenomenon and appropriate handling NED in prostate cancer will benefit clinical practice.
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate carcinomas can be seen in two settings: as a focal finding in conventional acinar adenocarcinoma, identifiable by immunohistochemical staining, or as a primary NE tumor of the prostate gland, such as carcinoid, small cell carcinoma, or large cell NE carcinoma. Of particular interest is the large cell NE carcinoma, which had been previously reported in isolated cases or in limited case series. In this report, we describe a case of a large cell NE carcinoma diagnosed in a 48-year-old man who presented with difficulty in voiding and urine retention. A cystoscopy revealed an enlarged, elongated prostate with an intra-urethral obstructing mass in the prostatic urethra. Subsequently, a transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) was performed at an outside hospital under the clinical diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Microscopic examination of the TURP specimen revealed several foci of low-grade transitional-zone-type adenocarcinoma corresponding to Gleason score 5 (3 + 2), and a focus of high-grade large cell NE carcinoma. Concurrent x-ray computed tomography scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis demonstrated an enlarged left pelvic lymph node, which was biopsied and the patient was diagnosed with metastatic large cell NE carcinoma. He subsequently underwent 8 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with Lupron, a laparoscopic robotic-assisted radical retropubic prostatectomy, and pelvic lymphadenectomy. He died of widely metastatic prostatic carcinoma with leptomeningeal metastases 13 months after radical prostatectomy. Here, we present a rare case of large cell NE carcinoma with a review of the published literature.
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