Article

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostate: a clinicopathologic summary of 7 cases of a rare manifestation of advanced prostate cancer.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University Health Network, Mt Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.59). 06/2006; 30(6):684-93.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer is typically detected by immunohistochemistry as single cells in conventional adenocarcinoma. Prostatic NE tumors, such as carcinoid or small cell carcinoma, are rare and large cell NE carcinoma (LCNEC) is described only in case reports. We identified 7 cases of LCNEC and compiled their clinicopathologic characteristics. In 6 cases, there was a history of adenocarcinoma treated with hormone therapy for a mean of 2.4 years (range: 2 to 3 y). The remaining case was de novo LCNEC. LCNEC was incidentally diagnosed in palliative transurethral resection specimens in 5 cases. The mean patient age at diagnosis with LCNEC was 67 years (range: 43 to 81 y). LCNEC comprised solid sheets and ribbons of cells with abundant pale to amphophilic cytoplasm, large nuclei with coarse chromatin and prominent nucleoli along with brisk mitotic activity and foci of necrosis. In 6 cases, there were foci of admixed adenocarcinoma, 4 of which showed hormone therapy effects. LCNEC was strongly positive for CD56, CD57, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and P504S/alpha methylacyl CoA racemase. There was strong bcl-2 overexpression, expression of MIB1, and p53 in >50% of nuclei, focally positive staining for prostate specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase and negative androgen receptor staining. Follow-up was available for 6 patients, all of who died with metastatic disease at mean of 7 months (range: 3 to 12 mo) after platinum-based chemotherapy. LCNEC of prostate is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that typically manifests after long-term hormonal therapy for prostatic adenocarcinoma and likely arises through clonal progression under the selection pressure of therapy.

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    ABSTRACT: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate (LCNEC), de novo in particular, is an extremely rare entity that has only been described in the literature in case reports. Historically, the majority of the cases of LCNEC reported in the literature represent typical prostatic adenocarcinomas that transformed after long standing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). These cases were admixed with histological areas of usual adenocarcinoma and showed hybrid features of both neuroendocrine and usual adenocarcinoma. Here we present a case of an LCNEC without admixed areas of usual prostatic adenocarcinoma arising de novo in a patient without prior history of hormonal therapy. The tumor also shows morphologic evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation; composed of large sheets and nests of cells with moderate amphophilic cytoplasm with peripheral palisading, and vesicular clumpy chromatin with prominent nucleoli. The carcinoma's prostatic origin is indicated by positive immunohistochemical staining for PSA, PAP, PSMA, racemase, and Nkx3.1. Diffusely positive staining for chromogranin and synaptophysin, as well as the presence of secretory granules in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells demonstrated by electron microscopy supports the NE differentiation. NE prostate cancer usually does not express AR and is refractory to ADT therapy while AR and ERG are positive in this case. In summary, we report a de novo LCNEC of the prostate with review of literature, in particular, clinical implications.
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