Contagious equine metritis: a review.

Department of Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, USA.
Theriogenology (Impact Factor: 1.85). 04/1979; 11(3):209-16. DOI: 10.1016/0093-691X(79)90029-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM) is a highly contagious venereal disease of horses caused by a fastidious, Gram-negative coccobacillus which grows best on chocolate agar under microaerophilic conditions (5-10% CO2). Clinically, the disease is characterized by a copious watery-to-mucopurulent, vaginal discharge two to ten days after breeding by an infected stallion (11, 13). Shortened estrous cycle lengths are common and may be the only indication of endometritis in some instances (7). Inapparent carriers of the disease in both the mare and stallion make control of the disease more difficult. Outbreaks of CEM have been reported in England, Ireland, France, Australia and the United States. The current information concerning CEM is reviewed.

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    ABSTRACT: Recent CEM outbreak reports reflect a novel epidemiologic manifestation with a markedly different risk association for transmission via artificial reproduction and subsequent to inadvertent importation of unapparent carrier stallions. Artificial breeding has an increased association with horizontal or fomite-associated transmission. Reported risk factors include inadequate biosecurity protocols at centralised breeding facilities associated with stallion management and methods of semen collection, processing and transport. Detection of carriers is based on traditional bacteriology from genital swabs and despite limitations inherent to Taylorella equigenitalis is currently the gold standard applied in all international trade and movement protocols. These limitations are reported to be overcome by PCR assays improving diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, practicality, turn-around times, through-put and cost efficacy. Molecular methods have increased understanding of the Taylorelleae, facilitate epidemiologic surveillance and outbreak control strategies. Validation and international regulatory acceptance of a robust PCR-based assay and the undefined risks in association with cryopreserved semen and embryos are future areas warranting further investigation.
    Veterinary Microbiology 12/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.12.021 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Taylorella equigenitalis is a causative bacterium of contagious equine metritis (CEM), and Taylorella asinigenitalis is species belonging to genus Taylorella. The authors developed two loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods, Te-LAMP and Ta-LAMP, for detecting T. equigenitalis and T. asinigenitalis, respectively. Using experimentally spiked samples, Te-LAMP was as sensitive as a published semi-nested PCR method, and Ta-LAMP was more sensitive than conventional PCR. Multiplex LAMP worked well without nonspecific reactions, and the analytical sensitivities of multiplex LAMP in the spiked samples were almost equivalent to those of Te-LAMP and Ta-LAMP. Therefore, the LAMP methods are considered useful tools to detect T. equigenitalis and/or T. asinigenitalis, and preventive measures will be rapidly implemented if the occurrence of CEM is confirmed by the LAMP methods.
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