Contagious equine metritis: a review.

Department of Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, USA.
Theriogenology (Impact Factor: 1.85). 04/1979; 11(3):209-16. DOI: 10.1016/0093-691X(79)90029-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM) is a highly contagious venereal disease of horses caused by a fastidious, Gram-negative coccobacillus which grows best on chocolate agar under microaerophilic conditions (5-10% CO2). Clinically, the disease is characterized by a copious watery-to-mucopurulent, vaginal discharge two to ten days after breeding by an infected stallion (11, 13). Shortened estrous cycle lengths are common and may be the only indication of endometritis in some instances (7). Inapparent carriers of the disease in both the mare and stallion make control of the disease more difficult. Outbreaks of CEM have been reported in England, Ireland, France, Australia and the United States. The current information concerning CEM is reviewed.

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    ABSTRACT: Recent CEM outbreak reports reflect a novel epidemiologic manifestation with a markedly different risk association for transmission via artificial reproduction and subsequent to inadvertent importation of unapparent carrier stallions. Artificial breeding has an increased association with horizontal or fomite-associated transmission. Reported risk factors include inadequate biosecurity protocols at centralised breeding facilities associated with stallion management and methods of semen collection, processing and transport. Detection of carriers is based on traditional bacteriology from genital swabs and despite limitations inherent to Taylorella equigenitalis is currently the gold standard applied in all international trade and movement protocols. These limitations are reported to be overcome by PCR assays improving diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, practicality, turn-around times, through-put and cost efficacy. Molecular methods have increased understanding of the Taylorelleae, facilitate epidemiologic surveillance and outbreak control strategies. Validation and international regulatory acceptance of a robust PCR-based assay and the undefined risks in association with cryopreserved semen and embryos are future areas warranting further investigation.
    Veterinary Microbiology 12/2012; · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Examination of recently isolated cultures of three strains of Contagious Equine Metritis Organism grown on specially formulated, serum-free, clear typing medium revealed the presence of numerous colonial opacity variants. These colonies were prepared by a number of fixation and staining techniques and examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Opaque and transparent phenotypes produced copious amounts of extracellular material compared with intermediate-opacity phenotypes which produced little or none. Also unique to intermediate colonies were numerous thin intercellular strands, which may represent pili or polymers of extracellular material. The presence of an unusual fibrillar layer (with similar electron density to the extracellular material) on the outer leaf of the outer membrane also was confirmed. A number of other ultrastructural features also were noted, including an epilayer, a thin nonmembranous layer which covered colonies and adjacent agar.
    Infection and Immunity 05/1985; 48(1):94-108. · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 04/2010; 25(3):184 - 193. · 2.37 Impact Factor


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