Inhibition of in vivo angiogenesis by N-beta-alanyl-5-S-glutathionyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine.
ABSTRACT N-beta-alanyl-5-S-glutathionyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (5-S-GAD), an antibacterial substance isolated from the flesh fly, inhibits human tumor growth in the nude mice model; however, the mechanism of its action is unclear. The in vivo antitumor effect includes the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and suppression of angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we examined whether 5-S-GAD inhibits tumor cell-induced angiogenesis by performing the mouse dorsal air sac assay. We found that intraperitoneal administration of 5-S-GAD inhibited the angiogenesis induced by S180 mouse sarcoma cells. Furthermore, 5-S-GAD also inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis in the Matrigel plug assay and embryonic angiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay. However, 5-S-GAD did not show any effect on the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of vascular endothelial cells. These results provide the first evidence that a bioactive substance derived from the flesh fly has antiangiogenic activity in vivo, although the mechanisms involved could not be explained.
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ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the major endothelial mitogen in central nervous system neoplasms and it is expressed in 64-95% of glioblastomas (GBMs). Tumour cells are the main source of VEGF in GBMs whereas VEGF receptors (VEGFR-1, its soluble form sVEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and neuropilin-1) are expressed predominantly by endothelial cells. Infiltrating tumour cells and newly-formed capillaries progress through the extracellular matrix by local proteolysis involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Recent studies have shown that VEGF expression and bioavailability can be modulated by MMPs. We reported previously that the expression of MT1-MMP in human breast cancer cells was associated with an enhanced VEGF expression. We used quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, gelatin zymography and immunohistochemistry to study the expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, sVEGFR-1, neuropilin-1, MT1-MMP, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-2 in 20 human GBMs and 5 normal brains. The expression of these MMPs was markedly increased in most GBMs with excellent correlation between mRNA and protein levels; activated forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were present in 8/18 and 7/18 of GBMs. A majority of GBMs (17/20) also expressed high levels of VEGF, as previously reported, with strong correlation between VEGF and MT1-MMP gene expression levels, and double immunostaining showed that VEGF and MT1-MMP peptides co-localize in tumour and endothelial cells. Our results suggest that the interplay between metalloproteinases and VEGF previously described in experimental tumours may also be operative in human GBMs. Because of its dual ability to activate MMP-2 and to up-regulate VEGF, MT1-MMP might be of central importance in the growth of GBMs and represent an interesting target for anti-cancer treatments.International Journal of Cancer 11/2003; 106(6):848-55. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of N-beta-alanyl-5-S-glutathionyl-dopa (5-S-GAD), a compound originally isolated from Sarcophaga peregrina (a flesh fly) as an antibacterial substance, on protein phosphorylation was examined using v-src-transformed NIH3T3 cell lysates. 5-S-GAD was found to inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of protein tyrosine kinase v-src, but not serine/threonine phosphorylation of protein kinase C. The potency of this compound was comparable to that of herbimycin A. Our results suggested that a substitution at position 5 of the catechol in 5-S-GAD with the sulfur of cysteine is essential for 5-S-GAD to inhibit protein tyrosine kinase v-src.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/1997; 237(2):423-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), a natural product of Capsicum species, is known to induce excitation of nociceptive terminals involved in pain perception. Recent studies have also shown that capsaicin not only has chemopreventive properties against certain carcinogens and mutagens but also exerts anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrated the antiangiogenic activity of capsaicin using in vitro and in vivo assay systems. In vitro, capsaicin inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -induced proliferation, DNA synthesis, chemotactic motility, and capillary-like tube formation of primary cultured human endothelial cells. Capsaicin inhibited both VEGF-induced vessel sprouting in rat aortic ring assay and VEGF-induced vessel formation in the mouse Matrigel plug assay. Moreover, capsaicin was able to suppress tumor-induced angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Capsaicin caused G(1) arrest in endothelial cells. This effect correlated with the down-regulation of the expression of cyclin D1 that led to inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 4-mediated phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Signaling experiments show that capsaicin inhibits VEGF-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, p125(FAK), and AKT activation, but its molecular target is distinct from the VEGF receptor KDR/Flk-1. Taken together, these results demonstrate that capsaicin is a novel inhibitor of angiogenesis and suggest that it may be valuable to develop pharmaceutical drugs for treatment of angiogenesis-dependent human diseases such as tumors.Cancer Research 02/2004; 64(2):644-51. · 8.65 Impact Factor