Chronic but not acute nicotine treatment reverses stress-induced impairment of LTP in anesthetized rats.
ABSTRACT Stress impairs long-term potentiation (LTP) and is a major cause for starting or increasing tobacco smoking. We have previously shown that chronic concurrent nicotine treatment prevents stress-induced LTP impairment. Nicotine reduces stress-induced impairment of LTP, probably, through activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus. Herein, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic nicotine treatments on the chronic-stress-induced impairment of LTP in area CA1 of the hippocampus of urethane-anesthetized rats. Extracellular in vivo recording from the hippocampal area CA1 showed that pre-treatment with nicotine (1 mg/kg; sc twice/day for 2 weeks prior to stress) protected LTP from the inhibitory effect of subsequent chronic psychosocial stress (4 additional weeks concurrently with nicotine). In another series of experiments, 2 weeks of psychosocial stress was followed by 4 weeks of nicotine treatment concurrently with continuing stress. Nicotine treatment reversed established stress-induced impairment of LTP. However, acute nicotine treatment of rats (a single dose of 1 mg/kg; sc.) did not reverse chronic-stress-induced impairment of LTP. The results show that the impairment of LTP during chronic stress can be blocked by chronic, but not acute, nicotine treatment.
Article: Adverse effect of combination of chronic psychosocial stress and high fat diet on hippocampus-dependent memory in rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The combined effects of high fat diet (HFD) and chronic stress on the hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory were studied in rats using the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Chronic psychosocial stress and/or HFD were simultaneously administered for 3 months to young adult male Wister rats. In the RAWM, rats were subjected to 12 learning trials as well as short-term and long-term memory tests. This procedure was applied on a daily basis until the animal reaches days to criterion (DTC) in the 12th learning trial and in memory tests. DTC is the number of days that the animal takes to make zero error in two consecutive days. Groups were compared based on the number of errors per trial or test as well as on the DTC. Chronic stress, HFD and chronic stress/HFD animal groups showed impaired learning as indicated by committing significantly (P<0.05) more errors than untreated control group in trials 6 through 9 of day 4. In memory tests, chronic stress, HFD and chronic stress/HFD groups showed significantly impaired performance compared to control group. Additionally, the stress/HFD was the only group that showed significantly impaired performance in memory tests on the 5th training day, suggesting more severe memory impairment in that group. Furthermore, DTC value for above groups indicated that chronic stress or HFD, alone, resulted in a mild impairment of spatial memory, but the combination of chronic stress and HFD resulted in a more severe and long-lasting memory impairment. The data indicated that the combination of stress and HFD produced more deleterious effects on hippocampal cognitive function than either chronic stress or HFD alone.Behavioural brain research 05/2009; 204(1):117-23. · 3.22 Impact Factor