Long-Term Mortality, Cause of Death, and Temporal Trends in Complications after Percutaneous Aortic Balloon Valvuloplasty for Calcific Aortic Stenosis

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA.
Journal of Interventional Cardiology (Impact Factor: 1.18). 06/2006; 19(3):269-75. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-8183.2006.00142.x
Source: PubMed


We sought to assess survival, predictors of adverse outcomes, and complication rates in a more recent series of adults undergoing percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty (PABV) for symptomatic calcific aortic stenosis. While aortic valve replacement is the treatment of choice for adults with symptomatic calcific aortic stenosis, PABV has been used in selected patients who are not good surgical candidates. Registries of patients who underwent PABV over 15 years ago have shown poor long-term survival and high procedural complication rates. This single-center cohort study enrolled consecutive adults undergoing PABV between 1989 and 2005 for calcific aortic stenosis. Demographic, hemodynamic, and procedural data, as well as vital status, were collected by chart review and query of the National Death Index. The study included 78 patients: mean age 78 +/- 11 years, 51% female, 90% heart failure, 61% coronary disease, and 8% end-stage renal disease. While 22% had a major procedural complication, this rate tended to decrease over time (P=0.068). In the cohort, 87% died with a median survival of 6.6 months. According to NDI records, the primary cause of death was cardiac in 54% of deaths. Survival was significantly higher in patients <or=70 years and those bridged to aortic valve replacement. PABV in patients who are elderly and not candidates for bridge to aortic valve replacement is associated with poor long-term survival. The decrease in the complication rate over the past 15 years has important implications regarding the morbidity associated with percutaneous aortic valve replacement techniques.

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    • "Presenting a significant risk to the life of the patient, but less frequent complications, are stroke (1-2%), myocardial infarction (1%), cardiac tamponade (1%) and significant acute aortic regurgitation (1%) [38, 39, 43, 45]. The operator's experience and technological progress have significantly improved the safety of the procedure [36, 45, 47, 48], as exemplified by the decline in the incidence of serious vascular complications from 13.5% in the 1990s to 4.6-7% observed currently [38, 39, 45, 46]. As a result, the periprocedural mortality is only approx. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aortic stenosis is a congenital or acquired reduction in the area of the aortic valve, resulting in obstruction of the blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. Aortic stenosis accounts for 2-5% of all congenital heart defects and is a potentially life-threatening disorder. In adults aortic stenosis represents 34% of all valvular heart diseases. Degenerative etiology is present in 80% of cases. Patients with mild aortic stenosis are usually asymptomatic. Symptoms of the disease occur along with the disappearance of effective compensatory mechanisms. These are symptoms of low cardiac output syndrome manifested as fainting, dizziness, ischemic pains, exercise intolerance, arrhythmias with the risk of sudden cardiac death, and heart failure. As soon as the symptoms occur the prognosis significantly worsens, which is associated with a high risk of death. Percutaneous aortic valvuloplasty is a palliative method of treatment of aortic stenosis. The aim of the procedure is to relieve left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, thereby improving cardiac output. The etiology, course of the aortic stenosis and treatment methods, including invasive procedures, vary depending on the patients' age. The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of the aortic valve disease and the strategy of aortic balloon valvuloplasty in different age groups.
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    ABSTRACT: Interventional Therapy of Aortic Stenosis - an Option for all Patients? Calci- fied aortic stenosis is the predominant valve dis- ease in the western world. Especially elderly patients with significant stenosis and certain comorbidities are not referred for surgery due to high operative mortality. Percutaneous aortic
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    ABSTRACT: Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV), introduced since almost 20 years, has experienced a revival for its use in the treatment of elderly patients with severe calcified aortic stenosis that are associated with high operative risk and co-morbidities. This is due to the introduction of new balloon catheters and techniques. This study reports about 75 such cases performed within the past 28 months. The mean age of our patient group was 78 +/- 7 years (median = 80 years). Risk calculation with the EuroSCORE demonstrated an average value of 24.4 +/- 19.5%. BAV was performed along with burst pacing to reduce transvalvular blood flow for stabilization of the balloon catheter until blood pressure dropped to less than 50 mmHg. BAV was performed in 72 patients with a procedural success rate of 73%. There was a decrease of 31 mmHg peak-to-peak gradient across the aortic valve from 63 +/- 35 to 32 +/- 22 mmHg (P < 0.0001). Mean gradient was reduced from 51 +/- 24 to 27 +/- 15 mmHg (P < 0.0001). Aortic valve area increased by 49% from 0.84 +/- 0.33 to 1.25 +/- 0.45 cm(2) (P < 0.0001). Serious adverse events (SAE) occurred in 17% of the 75 BAV procedures. Follow-up revealed a significant improvement in 6-month and 1-year survival. The improved technology of BAV makes this technique attractive for elderly patients who are at high operative risk or in cases where valve replacement was refused for any reason.
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