Role of integrin-linked kinase in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in crescent formation of experimental glomerulonephritis.
ABSTRACT Glomerular parietal epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key event in crescent formation of glomerulonephritis (GN). Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an integrin cytoplasmic-binding protein that has been implicated in the regulation of cell adhesion, extracellular matrix organization and EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is involved in the induction and progression of EMT in several tissues.
To investigate whether ILK is involved in the crescent formation in GN, we studied the expression of ILK protein and activity in crescentic GN induced in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. In addition, we investigated whether transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) could induce glomerular EMT and ILK by using cultured parietal epithelial cell (PEC).
The expression of ILK was strongly induced in cellular crescents at day 7 and followed by a decrease in fibrocellular crescents at day 28. ILK-expressing cells in cellular crescents were double-positive for protein gene product 9.5 (PEC marker), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA, myofibroblasts marker) and TGF-beta1, indicating a possible contribution of ILK and TGF-beta1 to EMT in crescent formation in GN. Consistent with the finding of histological ILK expression in crescents, western blot and kinase activity assay showed an increase in both ILK protein and activity, peaking at day 7 of GN (3.7- and 3.5-fold of control, respectively). The expression of ILK increased to 3.1-fold of control when EMT was induced in cultured PEC by TGF-beta1.
The present results provide the first evidence that expression and activity of ILK are increased in cellular crescents of experimental GN. Enhanced expression and activity of ILK, possibly by TGF-beta1, is associated with the induction of EMT by PEC and thereby, may participate in the formation of cellular crescents in GN.
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ABSTRACT: Intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation plays a critical role in the development and progression of renal injury. In the kidney, all of the RAS components are present and intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II) is formed by multiple independent mechanisms. Angiotensinogen (AGT) is the only known substrate for renin that is a rate-limiting enzyme of the RAS. Recently, enhanced intrarenal AGT levels have been shown to reflect the intrarenal RAS status in hypertension, chronic glomerular disease and diabetic nephropathy. In this review, we focus on AGT expression of the diseased glomeruli in the progression of glomerular disease. An anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis rat model developed progressive proteinuria and glomerular crescent formation, accompanied by increased macrophage infiltration and glomerular expression of AGT and Ang II. The addition of Ang II type 1 receptor blocker to CC-chemokine recaptor 2 antagonist markedly attenuated the induction of macrophage infiltration, AGT and Ang II, and reduced glomerular crescent formation. Next, the levels of glomerular AGT expression and marker of reactive oxygen species in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) obese rats were higher than those in ZDF lean rats. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced an increase in the AGT expression in primary rat mesangial cells. Furthermore, the H(2)O(2)-induced upregulation of AGT was inhibited by a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and a c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor. These data suggest the potential contribution of enhanced AGT expression in glomeruli to the intrarenal RAS activation for the development of glomerular disease.International journal of clinical medicine. 09/2011; 2(1):378-387.
Article: Mechanisms and consequences of TGF-ß overexpression by podocytes in progressive podocyte disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In patients with progressive podocyte disease, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and membranous nephropathy, upregulation of transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) is observed in podocytes. Mechanical pressure or biomechanical strain in podocytopathies may cause overexpression of TGF-ß and angiotensin II (Ang II). Oxidative stress induced by Ang II may activate the latent TGF-ß, which then activates Smads and Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways in podocytes. Enhanced TGF-ß activity in podocytes may lead to thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) by overproduction of GBM proteins and impaired GBM degradation in podocyte disease. It may also lead to podocyte apoptosis and detachment from the GBM, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of podocytes, initiating the development of glomerulosclerosis. Furthermore, activated TGF-ß/Smad signaling by podocytes may induce connective tissue growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression, which could act as a paracrine effector mechanism on mesangial cells to stimulate mesangial matrix synthesis. In proliferative podocytopathies, such as cellular or collapsing FSGS, TGF-ß-induced ERK activation may play a role in podocyte proliferation, possibly via TGF-ß-induced EMT of podocytes. Collectively, these data bring new mechanistic insights into our understanding of the TGF-ß overexpression by podocytes in progressive podocyte disease.Cell and Tissue Research 05/2011; 347(1):129-40. · 3.11 Impact Factor
Article: Involvement of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system in experimental models of glomerulonephritis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has several pathophysiologic functions not only in blood pressure regulation but also in the development of glomerulonephritis (GN). Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the biologically active product of the RAS. Locally produced Ang II induces inflammation, renal cell growth, mitogenesis, apoptosis, migration, and differentiation, regulates the gene expression of bioactive substances, and activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways, leading to tissue damage. Activation of the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor pathway results in the production of proinflammatory mediators, cell proliferation, and extracellular matrix synthesis, which facilitates glomerular injury. Previous studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or AT1 receptor blockers have beneficial effects in experimental GN models and humans with various types of GN, and that these effects are more significant than their suppressive effects on blood pressure. In this paper, we focus on intrarenal RAS activation in the pathophysiology of experimental models of GN.Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 01/2012; 2012:601786. · 2.44 Impact Factor