Dkk1-mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling in bone results in osteopenia.
ABSTRACT Mutations affecting the activity of the Wnt co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 that cause alterations in skeletal biology confirmed the involvement of Wnt signaling in bone formation. We evaluated the potential role of Dkk1, an inhibitor of LRP5/6 activity, in bone formation by examining the normal expression pattern of Dkk1 in normal young mice and by assessing the consequences of osteoblast overexpression of Dkk1 in transgenic mice. Endogenous Dkk1 expression was detected primarily in osteoblasts and osteocytes. Transgenic over-expression of Dkk1 using two different rat collagen 1A1 promoters resulted in distinct bone phenotypes. More widespread Dkk1 expression (driven by the Col1A1 3.6 kb promoter) yielded osteopenia with forelimb deformities and hairlessness, while expression restricted to osteoblasts (driven by the Col1A1 2.3 kb promoter) induced severe osteopenia without limb defects or alopecia. The decrease in bone mass in vivo resulted from a significant 49% reduction in osteoblast numbers and was reflected in a 45% reduction in serum osteocalcin concentration; an in vitro study revealed that Dkk1 caused a dose-dependent suppression of osteoblast matrix mineralization. These data indicate that Dkk1 may directly influence bone formation and suggest that osteopenia develops in mice over-expressing Dkk1 at least in part due to diminished bone formation resulting from reduced osteoblast numbers.
Chapter: New Aspect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling and Its Relationship with Wnt Signaling in Bone02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0079-9
Article: Bone resorption and remodeling in murine collagenase-induced osteoarthritis after administration of glucosamine.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glucosamine is an amino-monosaccharide and precursor of glycosaminoglycans, major components of joint cartilage. Glucosamine has been clinically introduced for the treatment of osteoarthritis but the data about its protective role in disease are insufficient. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of long term administration of glucosamine on bone resorption and remodeling. The effect of glucosamine on bone resorption and remodeling was studied in a model of collagenase-induced osteoarthritis (CIOA). The levels of macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, protein regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES), soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6, 4 and 10 in synovial fluid were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell populations in synovial extracts and the expression of RANKL, of receptors for TNF-α (TNF-αR) and interferon γ (IFN-γR) on clusters of differentiation (CD) three positive T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, phosphorylated protein mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (pSMAD-2), RANKL and Dickkopf-1 protein (DKK-1) positive staining in CIOA joints were determined by immunohistochemistry. The administration of glucosamine hydrochloride in CIOA mice inhibited loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) in cartilage, bone erosion and osteophyte formation. It decreased the levels of soluble RANKL and IL-6 and induced IL-10 increase in the CIOA joint fluids. Glucosamine limited the number of CD11b positive Ly6G neutrophils and RANKL positive CD3 T cells in the joint extracts. It suppressed bone resorption via down-regulation of RANKL expression and affected bone remodeling in CIOA by decreasing BMP-2, TGF-β3 and pSMAD-2 expression and up-regulating DKK-1 joint levels. Our data suggest that glucosamine hydrochloride inhibits bone resorption through down-regulation of RANKL expression in the joints, via reduction of the number of RANKL positive CD3 T cells and the level of sRANKL in the joints extracts. These effects of glucosamine appear to be critical for the progression of CIOA and result in limited bone remodeling of the joints.Arthritis research & therapy 03/2011; 13(2):R44. · 4.27 Impact Factor
Article: Human Dickkopf-1 (huDKK1) protein: characterization of glycosylation and determination of disulfide linkages in the two cysteine-rich domains.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human Dickkopf-1 (huDKK1), an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt-signaling pathway that has been implicated in bone metabolism and other diseases, was expressed in engineered Chinese hamster ovary cells and purified. HuDKK1 is biologically active in a TCF/lef-luciferase reporter gene assay and is able to bind LRP6 coreceptor. In SDS-PAGE, huDKK1 exhibits molecular weights of 27-28 K and 30 K at ∼ 1:9 ratio. By MALDI-MS analysis, the observed molecular weights of 27.4K and 29.5K indicate that the low molecular weight form may contain O-linked glycans while the high molecular weight form contains both N- and O-linked glycans. LC-MS/MS peptide mapping indicates that ∼ 92% of huDKK1 is glycosylated at Asn²²⁵ with three N-linked glycans composed of two biantennary forms with 1 and 2 sialic acid (23% and 60%, respectively), and one triantennary structure with 2 sialic acids (9%). HuDKK1 contains two O-linked glycans, GalNAc (sialic acid)-Gal-sialic acid (65%) and GalNAc-Gal[sialic acid] (30%), attached at Ser³⁰ as confirmed by β-elimination and targeted LC-MS/MS. The 10 intramolecular disulfide bonds at the N- and C-terminal cysteine-rich domains were elucidated by analyses including multiple proteolytic digestions, isolation and characterization of disulfide-containing peptides, and secondary digestion and characterization of selected disulfide-containing peptides. The five disulfide bonds within the huDKK1 N-terminal domain are unique to the DKK family proteins; there are no exact matches in disulfide positioning when compared to other known disulfide clusters. The five disulfide bonds assigned in the C-terminal domain show the expected homology with those found in colipase and other reported disulfide clusters.Protein Science 07/2011; 20(11):1802-13. · 2.80 Impact Factor