The GRR1 gene of Candida albicans is involved in the negative control of pseudohyphal morphogenesis.
ABSTRACT The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans can grow as yeast, pseudohyphae or true hyphae. C. albicans can switch between these morphologies in response to various environmental stimuli and this ability to switch is thought to be an important virulence trait. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Grr1 protein is the substrate recognition component of an SCF ubiquitin ligase that regulates cell cycle progression, cell polarity and nutrient signaling. In this study, we have characterized the GRR1 gene of C. albicans. Deletion of GRR1 from the C. albicans genome results in a highly filamentous, pseudohyphal morphology under conditions that normally promote the yeast form of growth. Under hypha-inducing conditions, most cells lacking GRR1 retain a pseudohyphal morphology, but some cells appear to switch to hyphal-like growth and express the hypha-specific genes HWP1 and ECE1. The C. albicans GRR1 gene also complements the elongated cell morphology phenotype of an S. cerevisiae grr1Delta mutant, indicating that C. albicans GRR1 encodes a true orthologue of S. cerevisaie Grr1. These results support the hypothesis that the Grr1 protein of C. albicans, presumably as the F-box subunit of an SCF ubiquitin ligase, has an essential role in preventing the switch from the yeast cell morphology to a pseudohyphal morphology.
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ABSTRACT: In the development of hyphal germ tubes of Candida albicans, a band of septin forms at the base of the germ tube (basal septin band). Later, a septin ring forms, which organizes the first septum within the germ tube (septin ring). We have investigated the role of the Nim1 kinases, Gin4 and Hsl1, in the formation of these septin structures. We show that during germ tube formation, Gin4 is required for the organization of the septin ring but not the basal septin band. Hsl1 is not required for the formation of either septin rings or basal bands. Unexpectedly, we found that both gin4Delta and hsl1Delta mutants form pseudohyphae constitutively, in a fashion that in the case of gin4Delta, is partly independent of Swe1. Gin4-depleted pseudohyphae are unable to form hyphae when challenged with serum, but this can be overcome by ectopic expression of Gin4 from the MET3 promoter. Thus, Gin4 may regulate the developmental switch from pseudohyphae to hyphae.The Journal of Cell Biology 03/2004; 164(4):581-91. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Grr1 protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a central component of a glucose signal transduction mechanism responsible for glucose-induced gene expression. It is required for glucose-stimulated regulation of Rgt1, a repressor of several glucose-induced HXT genes. Grr1 also plays a role in regulating the cell cycle, because it is required for degradation of the G1 cyclins Cln1 and Cln2. We discovered that Grr1 physically interacts with Skp1, a protein that has been implicated in a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme complex that targets for degradation the cell cycle regulators Cln1 and Cln2, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1. Thus, Grr1 may regulate the cell cycle and glucose-induced gene expression via ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Consistent with this idea, Skp1, like Grr1, was found to be required for glucose-induced HXT gene expression. Two functional domains of Grr1 are required for its interaction with Skp1: 12 leucine-rich repeats (LRR) and an adjacent F-box. The Grr1-Skp1 interaction is enhanced by high levels of glucose. This could provide yeast with a mechanism for coupling nutrient availability to gene expression and cell cycle regulation.The EMBO Journal 10/1997; 16(18):5629-38. · 9.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A detailed description of the cytoskeletal rearrangements that orchestrate bud formation is beginning to emerge from studies on yeast morphogenesis. In this review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of how the timing of these rearrangements is controlled. Dramatic changes in cell polarity that occur in G1 (polarization to the bud site), G2 (depolarization within the bud), and mitosis (repolarization to the mother/bud neck) are triggered by changes in the kinase activity of Cdc28, the universal regulator of cell cycle progression. The hunt for Cdc28 morphogenesis substrates is on.Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 03/1995; 5(1):17-23. · 7.47 Impact Factor