Nigral injection of antisense oligonucleotides to synaptotagmin I using HVJ-liposome vectors causes disruption of dopamine release in the striatum and impaired skill learning.
ABSTRACT To produce an animal model of a dopa-responsive motor disorder with depletion of dopamine (DA) release in the striatum by dysfunction of the transmitter release machinery of the nigrostriatal DA system, we performed an intra-nigral injection of an HVJ-liposome gene transfer vector containing antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) against synaptotagmin I (SytI), a key regulator of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis and endocytosis in adult rats. A unilateral intra-nigral injection of HVJ-liposome vectors containing antisense ODNs against SytI (syt-AS) caused a moderate disruption of methamphetamine-induced release of DA in the treated side of the striatum, while the syt-AS treatment did not affect physiological release of DA in the treated striatum. A bilateral intra-nigral injection of HVJ-liposome vectors containing syt-AS induced an impairment of the striatal DA-mediated acquisition of skilled behavior in a rotarod task without any deficits in general motor functions, such as spontaneous locomotor activity, motor adjusting steps, equilibrium function, or muscle strength. These findings suggest that an intra-nigral treatment with HVJ-liposome vectors containing syt-AS may cause a long-lasting nigral knockdown of SytI which, in turn, leads to a moderate dysfunction of the DA release machinery in the terminals of the nigrostriatal DA system and a subsequent mild depletion of DA release in the striatum.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Midbrain dopamine neurons are implicated in various psychiatric and neurological disorders. The GABAergic tail of the ventral tegmental area (tVTA), also named the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), displays dense projections to the midbrain and exerts electrophysiological control over dopamine cells of the VTA. However, the influence of the tVTA on the nigrostriatal pathway, from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) to the dorsal striatum, and on related functions remains to be addressed. The present study highlights the role played by the tVTA as a GABA brake for the nigrostriatal system, demonstrating a critical influence over motor functions. Using neuroanatomical approaches with tract-tracing and electron microscopy, we reveal the presence of a tVTA-SNc-dorsal striatum pathway. Using in vivo electrophysiology, we prove that the tVTA is a major inhibitory control center for SNc dopamine cells. Using behavioral approaches, we demonstrate that the tVTA controls rotation behavior, motor coordination and motor skill learning. The motor enhancements observed after ablation of the tVTA are in this regard comparable to the performance enhancing properties of amphetamine, a drug used in doping. These findings demonstrate that the tVTA is a major GABA brake for nigral dopamine systems and nigrostriatal functions, and they raise important questions about how the tVTA is integrated within basal ganglia circuitry. They also warrant further research on the tVTA's role in motor and dopamine-related pathological contexts such as Parkinson's disease.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 4 June 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.129.Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2014; · 8.68 Impact Factor
- Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience 01/2010; 20:501-525.