Global gene expression during nitrogen starvation in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea.
ABSTRACT Efficient regulation of nitrogen metabolism likely plays a role in the ability of fungi to exploit ecological niches. To learn about regulation of nitrogen metabolism in the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe grisea, we undertook a genome-wide analysis of gene expression under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Five hundred and twenty genes showed increased transcript levels at 12 and 48 h after shifting the fungus to media lacking nitrate as a nitrogen source. Thirty-nine of these genes have putative functions in amino acid metabolism and uptake, and include the global nitrogen regulator in M. grisea, NUT1. Evaluation of seven nitrogen starvation-induced genes revealed that all were expressed during rice infection. Targeted gene replacement on one such gene, the vacuolar serine protease, SPM1, resulted in decreased sporulation and appressorial development as well as a greatly attenuated ability to cause disease. Data are discussed in the context of nitrogen metabolism under starvation conditions, as well as conditions potentially encountered during invasive growth in planta.
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ABSTRACT: Because of great challenges and workload in deleting genes on a large scale, the functions of most genes in pathogenic fungi are still unclear. In this study, we developed a high-throughput gene knockout system using a novel yeast-Escherichia-Agrobacterium shuttle vector, pKO1B, in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Using this method, we deleted 104 fungal-specific Zn2Cys6 transcription factor (TF) genes in M. oryzae. We then analyzed the phenotypes of these mutants with regard to growth, asexual and infection-related development, pathogenesis, and 9 abiotic stresses. The resulting data provide new insights into how this rice pathogen of global significance regulates important traits in the infection cycle through Zn2Cys6TF genes. A large variation in biological functions of Zn2Cys6TF genes was observed under the conditions tested. Sixty-one of 104 Zn2Cys6 TF genes were found to be required for fungal development. In-depth analysis of TF genes revealed that TF genes involved in pathogenicity frequently tend to function in multiple development stages, and disclosed many highly conserved but unidentified functional TF genes of importance in the fungal kingdom. We further found that the virulence-required TF genes GPF1 and CNF2 have similar regulation mechanisms in the gene expression involved in pathogenicity. These experimental validations clearly demonstrated the value of a high-throughput gene knockout system in understanding the biological functions of genes on a genome scale in fungi, and provided a solid foundation for elucidating the gene expression network that regulates the development and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.PLoS Pathogens 10/2014; 10(10):e1004432. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genes expressed during conidial germination of the pepper anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum acutatum were identified by sequencing the 5' end of unidirectional cDNA clones prepared from the conidial germination stage. A total of 983 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) corresponding to 464 genes, 197 contigs and 267 singletons, were generated. The deduced protein sequences from half of the 464 genes showed significant matches (e value less than 10-5) to proteins in public databases. The genes with known homologs were assigned to known functional categories. The most abundantly expressed genes belonged to those encoding the elongation factor, histone protein, ATP synthease, 14-3-3 protein, and clock controlled protein. A number of genes encoding proteins such as the GTP-binding protein, MAP kinase, transaldolase, and ABC transporter were detected. These genes are thought to be involved in the development of fungal cells. A putative pathogenicity function could be assigned for the genes of ATP citrate lyase, CAP20 and manganese-superoxide dismutase.Journal of Life Science. 01/2013; 23(1).
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ABSTRACT: The fungus Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of the green mould rot, is the most destructive postharvest pathogen of citrus fruit in Mediterranean regions. In order to identify P. digitatum genes up-regulated during the infection of oranges that may constitute putative virulence factors, we have followed a PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA macroarray hybridization approach. The origin of ESTs was determined by comparison against the available genome sequences of both organisms. Genes coding for fungal proteases and plant cell wall degrading enzymes represent the largest categories in the subtracted cDNA library. Northern blot analysis of a selection of P. digitatum genes, including those coding for proteases, cell wall related enzymes, redox homoeostasis and detoxification processes, confirmed their up-regulation at varying time points during the infection process. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to generate knockout mutants for two genes encoding a pectin lyase (Pnl1) and a naphthalene dioxygenase (Ndo1). Two independent P. digitatum Δndo1 mutants were as virulent as the wild type. However, the two Δpnl1 mutants analysed were less virulent than the parental strain or an ectopic transformant. Together, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding on the putative determinants of the virulence mechanisms of P. digitatum.Molecular Plant Pathology 08/2014; · 4.49 Impact Factor