Detection and quantification of Vibrio populations using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis.
ABSTRACT Bacteria affiliated with the genus Vibrio are endemic in marine and estuarine ecosystems and are also found in many freshwater environments. Vibrios can enter viable but non-culturable states and since many species are pathogenic, there is a great need for culture-independent methods that identify and quantify multiple Vibrio populations. We adopted Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA-directed primers and a competitive PCR protocol (QC-PCR; [Thompson, J.R., Randa, M.A., Marcelino, L.A., Tomita-Mitchell, A., Lim, E., Polz, M.F., 2004b. Diversity and dynamics of a North Atlantic coastal Vibrio community. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70, 4103-4110]) for separation and quantification of Vibrio populations using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Sixteen Vibrio isolates and eight environmental samples were used to assess the precision and resolution of the method. A 45-70% gradient of Urea and formamide enabled separation of Vibrio populations with single nucleotide differences in the amplified fragment. A titration curve for the QC-PCR-DGGE, verified by amending surface water bacterioplankton samples with up to 3 x 10(5)Vibrio cholerae cells, could be approximated by a linear regression of log-transformed values (R(2)=0.96). The limit of detection for single populations was 180 cells per extracted sample or about 4 cells per PCR reaction. Environmental samples from the southern Stockholm archipelago in the Baltic Sea and the more saline coastal waters of Skagerrak each carried between 2 and 6 Vibrio populations, and there were major differences between the locations. Notably, multiple Vibrio populations could be detected and quantified against a background of native bacterioplankton exceeding Vibrio population abundance by more than 6 orders of magnitude. Putative identification based on migration in the DGGE gel was verified by parallel cloning and sequencing of PCR products, and representative clones were also characterized by DGGE. This general approach could also be useful for targeting other phylogenetically constrained bacterial groups and assess their abundance and distribution in complex environmental settings.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of potentially pathogenic species of Vibrio in French marine and estuarine environments. Samples of coastal waters and mussels collected between July and September 1999 were analysed by culture, using selective media including thiosulphate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose and modified cellobiose-polymixin B-colistin agar. Presumptive Vibrio colonies were isolated and identified using selected biochemical tests. Specific primers based on flanking sequences of the cytolysin, vvhA gene, pR72H DNA fragment and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm the identification of Vibrio vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae, respectively. In this study, V. alginolyticus (99 of 189) was the predominant species, followed by V. parahaemolyticus (41 of 189), V. vulnificus (20 of 189) and non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae (three of 189). All 20 V. vulnificus isolates showed PCR amplification of the vvhA gene, 16 of which had been isolated from estuarine water. The PCR amplification of the pR72H DNA fragment in 41 V. parahaemolyticus isolates generated two unique amplicons of 387 and 320 bp. The latter, present in 24.4% of these isolates, had not previously been found in V. parahaemolyticus strains examined to date. Amplification of the trh gene in two of the isolates suggested these to be virulent strains. Three strains identified as V. cholerae by amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA ISR were confirmed to be non-cholera (non-O1/non-O139) strains. The results of this study demonstrated the presence of pathogenic Vibrio species in French coastal waters. Furthermore, the PCR approach proved useful for the rapid and reliable confirmation of species identification. These findings indicate the potential sanitary risk associated with the presence of pathogenic Vibrio spp. in cultivated mussels and in the aquatic environment. The PCR can be used to detect pathogenic vibrios directly in environmental samples.Journal of Applied Microbiology 02/2002; 92(6):1123-35. · 2.20 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vibrio fischeri belongs to the Vibrionaceae, a large family of marine gamma-proteobacteria that includes several dozen species known to engage in a diversity of beneficial or pathogenic interactions with animal tissue. Among the small number of pathogenic Vibrio species that cause human diseases are Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus, the only members of the Vibrionaceae that have had their genome sequences reported. Nonpathogenic members of the genus Vibrio, including a number of beneficial symbionts, make up the majority of the Vibrionaceae, but none of these species has been similarly examined. Here we report the genome sequence of V. fischeri ES114, which enters into a mutualistic symbiosis in the light organ of the bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. Analysis of this sequence has revealed surprising parallels with V. cholerae and other pathogens.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2005; 102(8):3004-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The culturability of abundant members of the domain Bacteria in North Sea bacterioplankton was investigated by a combination of various cultivation strategies and cultivation-independent 16S rRNA-based techniques. We retrieved 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) clones from environmental DNAs and determined the in situ abundance of different groups and genera by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A culture collection of 145 strains was established by plating on oligotrophic medium. Isolates were screened by FISH, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), and sequencing of representative 16S rDNAs. The majority of isolates were members of the genera Pseudoalteromonas, Alteromonas, and Vibrio. Despite being readily culturable, they constituted only a minor fraction of the bacterioplankton community. They were not detected in the 16S rDNA library, and FISH indicated rare (<1% of total cell counts) occurrence as large, rRNA-rich, particle-associated bacteria. Conversely, abundant members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacteria and gamma proteobacterial SAR86 clusters, identified by FISH as 17 to 30% and up to 10% of total cells in the North Sea bacterioplankton, respectively, were cultured rarely or not at all. Whereas SAR86-affiliated clones dominated the 16S rDNA library (44 of 53 clones), no clone affiliated to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterum cluster was retrieved. The only readily culturable abundant group of marine bacteria was related to the genus Roseobacter. The group made up 10% of the total cells in the summer, and the corresponding sequences were also present in our clone library. Rarefaction analysis of the ARDRA patterns of all of the isolates suggested that the total culturable diversity by our method was high and still not covered by the numbers of isolated strains but was almost saturated for the gamma proteobacteria. This predicts a limit to the isolation of unculturable marine bacteria, particularly the gamma-proteobacterial SAR86 cluster, as long as no new techniques for isolation are available and thus contrasts with more optimistic accounts of the culturability of marine bacterioplankton.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 08/2000; 66(7):3044-51. · 3.68 Impact Factor