Rapid Detection of Avian Influenza Virus A and Subtype H5N1 by Single Step Multiplex Reverse Transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction

Department of Infectious Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, 100094 Beijing, People's Republic of China.
Virus Genes (Impact Factor: 1.58). 07/2006; 32(3):261-7. DOI: 10.1007/s11262-005-6910-4
Source: PubMed


Outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus caused great economic losses to the poultry industry and resulted in human deaths in Thailand and Viet Nam in 2004. Rapid typing and subtyping of H5N1 viruses, especially from clinical specimens, are desirable for taking prompt control measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Here, we developed a set of oligonucleotide primers able to detect, type and subtype H5 and N1 influenza viruses in a single step multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RNA was extracted from allantoic fluid or from specimens with guanidinium isothiocyanate reagent. Reverse transcription and PCR were carried out with a mixture of primers specific for influenza viruses of type A, subtype H5 and N1 in a single reaction system under identical conditions. The amplified DNA fragments were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. All the H5N1 viruses tested in the study and the experimental specimens presented three specific bands by the method established here. The results presented here suggest that the method described below is rapid and specific and, therefore, could be valuable in the rapid detection of H5N1 influenza viruses in clinics.

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    • "Multiplex RT-PCR was designed to simultaneously amplify three genes from three different viruses which commonly infected in poultry in a single step reaction to detect M gene of AI virus, F gene of ND virus and VP2 gene of IBD virus using specific nucleotide primers for each gene (see Table). Conventional methods for detection and differential diagnosis of AI, ND and IBD require the inoculation and propagation into embryonated fowl eggs or tissue culture followed serological tests (Wei et al., 2006 "
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    ABSTRACT: Avian Influenza (AI), Newcastle Disease (ND) and Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) are highly contagious diseases with high occurrence in poultry. These 3 viral diseases are a major cause of disease problems in the poultry industry in Indonesia. The classical methods for detection and characterization of the etiological agents are by clinical sign, serological test, immunodiffusion test, pathology, histopathology and virus isolation. Since these conventional laboratory method have low sensitivity and specificity, the rapid diagnostic tool based on molecular technique are needed. Rapid detection and differential diagnosis for viral diseases have an important implication in clinical, economical and epidemiological aspects. RT-PCR amplification for diagnosis of viral disease in poultry industry is common used. This method can detect virus as etiological agent in poultry disease. Multiplex RT-PCR involves simultaneous amplification of more than one infectious agent using more than primer pair. In the present study, we developed a single step multiplex RT-PCR method, which can help in rapid detection and differentiation viruses as an etiological agent of AI, ND and IBD diseases. The method is highly sensitivity, specificity, fast and less expensive. The results showed that the single step multiplex RT-PCR method has been developed to rapid detection and differential diagnose for AI, ND and IBD viruses simultaneously in one step amplification reaction. This method is simple and easy for laboratory diagnosis application as well as specific and efficient to diagnose of viral diseases in poultry
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    • "Conventional laboratory methods for H5N1 virus detection include virus isolation in embryonated eggs or Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, followed by subsequent HA and NA subtype identification using serological methods [10,11]. Molecular detection methods such as reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) have been widely applied for the laboratory diagnosis of influenza infections and HA subtype identification [12,13]. However, these methods are technically demanding and time consuming, or requiring high level biosafety facility. "
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    ABSTRACT: The design and characterization of a low-density microarray for subtyping influenza A is presented. The microarray consisted of 15 distinct oligonucleotides designed to target only the matrix gene segment of influenza A. An artificial neural network was utilized to automate microarray image interpretation. The neural network was trained to recognize fluorescence image patterns for 68 known influenza viruses and subsequently used to identify 53 unknowns in a blind study that included 39 human patient samples and 14 negative control samples. The assay exhibited a clinical sensitivity of 95% and clinical specificity of 92%.
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