Rapid Detection of Avian Influenza Virus A and Subtype H5N1 by Single Step Multiplex Reverse Transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction
ABSTRACT Outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus caused great economic losses to the poultry industry and resulted in human deaths in Thailand and Viet Nam in 2004. Rapid typing and subtyping of H5N1 viruses, especially from clinical specimens, are desirable for taking prompt control measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Here, we developed a set of oligonucleotide primers able to detect, type and subtype H5 and N1 influenza viruses in a single step multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RNA was extracted from allantoic fluid or from specimens with guanidinium isothiocyanate reagent. Reverse transcription and PCR were carried out with a mixture of primers specific for influenza viruses of type A, subtype H5 and N1 in a single reaction system under identical conditions. The amplified DNA fragments were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. All the H5N1 viruses tested in the study and the experimental specimens presented three specific bands by the method established here. The results presented here suggest that the method described below is rapid and specific and, therefore, could be valuable in the rapid detection of H5N1 influenza viruses in clinics.
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ABSTRACT: We have previously developed a software package called PrimerHunter to design primers for PCR-based virus subtyping. In this study, 9 pairs of primers were designed with PrimerHunter and successfully used to differentiate the 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in multiple PCR-based assays. Furthermore, primer pools were designed and successfully used to decrease the number of reactions needed for NA subtyping from 9 to 4. The quadruplicate primer-pool method is cost-saving, and was shown to be suitable for the NA subtyping of both cultured AIVs and uncultured AIV swab samples. The primers selected for this study showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in NA subtyping by RT-PCR, SYBR green-based Real-time PCR and Real-time RT-PCR methods. AIV RNA of 2 to 200 copies (varied by NA subtypes) could be detected by these reactions. No unspecific amplification was displayed when detecting RNAs of other avian infectious viruses such as Infectious bronchitis virus, Infectious bursal disease virus and Newcastle disease virus. In summary, this study introduced several sensitive and specific PCR-based assays for NA subtyping of AIVs and also validated again the effectiveness of the PrimerHunter tool for the design of subtyping primers.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(11):e81842. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081842 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Avian Influenza (AI), Newcastle Disease (ND) and Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) are highly contagious diseases with high occurrence in poultry. These 3 viral diseases are a major cause of disease problems in the poultry industry in Indonesia. The classical methods for detection and characterization of the etiological agents are by clinical sign, serological test, immunodiffusion test, pathology, histopathology and virus isolation. Since these conventional laboratory method have low sensitivity and specificity, the rapid diagnostic tool based on molecular technique are needed. Rapid detection and differential diagnosis for viral diseases have an important implication in clinical, economical and epidemiological aspects. RT-PCR amplification for diagnosis of viral disease in poultry industry is common used. This method can detect virus as etiological agent in poultry disease. Multiplex RT-PCR involves simultaneous amplification of more than one infectious agent using more than primer pair. In the present study, we developed a single step multiplex RT-PCR method, which can help in rapid detection and differentiation viruses as an etiological agent of AI, ND and IBD diseases. The method is highly sensitivity, specificity, fast and less expensive. The results showed that the single step multiplex RT-PCR method has been developed to rapid detection and differential diagnose for AI, ND and IBD viruses simultaneously in one step amplification reaction. This method is simple and easy for laboratory diagnosis application as well as specific and efficient to diagnose of viral diseases in poultry
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes the development and the characterization of a wireless gas sensor network (WGSN) for the detection of combustible or explosive gases. The WGSN consists of a sensor node, a relay node, a network coordinator, and a wireless actuator. The sensor node attains early gas detection using an on board 2D semiconductor sensor. Because the sensor consumes a substantial amount of power, which negatively affects the node lifetime, we employ a pulse heating profile to achieve significant energy savings. The relay node receives and forwards traffic from sensor nodes towards the network coordinator and vice versa. When an emergency is detected, the network coordinator alarms an operator through the GSM/GPRS or Ethernet network, and may autonomously control the source of gas emission through the wireless actuator. Our experimental results demonstrate how to determine the optimal temperature of the sensor's sensitive layer for methane detection, show the response time of the sensor to various gases, and evaluate the power consumption of the sensor node. The demonstrated WGSN could be used for a wide range of gas monitoring applications.Sensors and Actuators A Physical 11/2011; 171(2):398-405. DOI:10.1016/j.sna.2011.07.016 · 1.94 Impact Factor