The relationship between suicide attempts and low-lethal self-harm behavior among psychiatric inpatients.
ABSTRACT In this study, we examined the relationship between suicide attempts and low-lethal self-harm behavior in a sample of psychiatric inpatients. Using a cross-sectional approach, we surveyed 107 participants about their histories of suicide attempts, including overdoses, as well as various low-lethal self-harm behaviors. Compared with those without such histories, individuals with histories of suicide attempts, including overdoses, were significantly more likely to report a greater number of: 1) low-lethal self-harm behaviors; 2) specific symptom clusters of self-harm behavior (i.e., self-mutilation, substance abuse, medically self-defeating behaviors); and 3) specific individual self-harm behaviors (e.g., torturing oneself with self-defeating thoughts, abusing prescription medications). These data suggest that suicide attempts and low-lethal self-harm behavior are likely to co-exist in many psychiatric inpatients.
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ABSTRACT: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal self-injury (SSI) co-occur in adults. The purpose of the current study was to examine differences and similarities in NSSI and SSI in adult women with respect to (1) methods used and lethality of methods, (2) intent and impulsivity of act, (3) precipitating events, and (4) consequences. The data consist of variables pertaining to 46 self-injurious acts committed by 16 Finnish female participants and recorded using Suicide Attempt Self-Injury Interviews (SASII). The data were analyzed using variables weighted by the number of acts. This study found several differences as well as similarities between the acts of SSI and those of NSSI: (a) the respective acts differ in the methods used, in the lethality of the methods, and in the expectations of resulting lethality of the acts, (b) they further differ in the functions the respective acts serve and (c) in some of the precipitating events and consequences. The acts were similar in (d) impulsivity of act and (e) some of the precipitating events and consequences. Because both types of behavior can occur within the same individual, and due to the progressing evolution between them, a thorough assessment of both NSSI and SSI needs to be completed. More emphasis needs to be placed on both the assessment of social connections and interpersonal conflict as well as how it informs the treatment. Because the behavior studied is multifunctional and changing, its treatment too needs to be customized to the multiple and changing needs of the individual patients, as opposed to diagnostic tailored treatment.Nordic psychology 02/2015; 67(1):27-45. DOI:10.1080/19012276.2014.997784 · 0.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of item banking to questionnaire items intended to measure Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH) behaviours. The Rasch measurement model was used to evaluate behavioural items extracted from seven published DSH scales administered to 568 Australians aged 18-30 years (62% university students, 21% mental health patients, and 17% community members). Ninety four items were calibrated in the item bank (including 12 items with differential item functioning for gender and age). Tailored scale construction was demonstrated by extracting scales covering different combinations of DSH methods but with the same raw score for each person location on the latent DSH construct. A simulated computer adaptive test (starting with common self-harm methods to minimise presentation of extreme behaviours) demonstrated that 11 items (on average) were needed to achieve a standard error of measurement of 0.387 (corresponding to a Cronbach׳s Alpha of 0.85). This study lays the groundwork for advancing DSH measurement to an item bank approach with the flexibility to measure a specific definitional orientation (e.g., non-suicidal self-injury) or a broad continuum of self-harmful acts, as appropriate to a particular research/clinical purpose.03/2014; 217(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.03.015
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the association between NSSI (functions) and reactive and regulative temperament. Fifty-one female eating disorder (ED) outpatients completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire-Treatment Related and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire to assess NSSI (functions) and temperament. Overall, more than one third of all ED patients engaged in at least one type of NSSI, irrespective of ED subtype. ED patients with high levels of Negative Affectivity (reactivity) and low levels of Effortful Control (regulation) had the highest probability to engage in NSSI. Finally, different NSSI functions of the four factor model of Nock and Prinstein (2004) showed differential relationships with the reactive and regulative temperament dimensions. Clinical implications of these findings for the treatment of NSSI in ED patients will be discussed.Personality and Individual Differences 01/2014; 57:65–69. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2013.09.022 · 1.86 Impact Factor