α-Methyl CoA racemase expression in renal cell carcinomas

Institute of Pathology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
Human Pathlogy (Impact Factor: 2.77). 07/2006; 37(6):698-703. DOI: 10.1016/j.humpath.2006.01.012
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Alpha-methyl CoA racemase (AMACR), a new molecular marker for prostate cancer, has been recently reported to be one of the most highly expressed genes in papillary renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). We tested the diagnostic usefulness of AMACR antibody in a series of 110 renal tumors: 53 papillary RCCs (33 type 1, 20 type 2); 25 conventional RCCs; 6 chromophobe RCCs; 9 oncocytomas; 5 mucinous tubular and spindle tumors; 2 urothelial carcinomas; 7 angiomyolipomas; and 2 Bellini carcinomas. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, with a primary prediluted rabbit monoclonal anti-AMACR antibody. Both type 1 and type 2 papillary RCCs exhibited cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for AMACR, with diffuse strong granular staining in 96.4% (53/55) of tumors, without correlation with type or nuclear grade. The 5 mucinous, tubular, and spindle cell carcinomas strongly expressed AMACR, and only 5 of 25 clear cell RCCs and 1 of 9 oncocytomas were focally reactive. The remaining 6 chromophobe RCCs, 5 urothelial carcinomas, and Bellini duct carcinomas showed no immunoreactivity for AMACR. Because high expression of AMACR is found in papillary RCCs (type 1 and 2) and in mucinous, tubular, and spindle cell carcinomas of the kidney, immunostaining for AMACR should be used in conjunction with other markers when histological typing of a renal tumor is difficult.

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Available from: Samuel Rotman, Sep 30, 2015
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    • "Immunostaining for CK7 in CCRCC is usually negative or only focally positive, contrasting with more diffuse labeling for this protein in many PRCCs [50-53], particularly type I PRCC. Diffuse, strong AMACR expression is typical of PRCC (70-100%); however, reactivity has also been observed to a variable extent in 4-68% of CCRCC [49,50,54-58], sometimes less diffusely or associated with higher-grade tumor components. When evaluating these two markers for RCC, focus has been predominantly directed at primary tumors. "
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    ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is known for its ability to metastasize synchronously or metachronously to various anatomic sites. Distinguishing histologic subtypes of metastatic RCC has become increasingly important, as prognosis and therapy can differ dramatically between subtypes. We propose a combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular cytogenetics for subtyping metastatic RCC in light of these potential therapeutic implications. Specimens from 103 cases of metastatic RCC were retrieved, including 32 cases originally diagnosed as metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC), 8 as metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC), and 63 metastatic RCC without a specific subtype. Immunohistochemistry was performed with antibodies against cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR). Dual color interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was utilized to assess for deletion of chromosome 3p and trisomy of chromosomes 7 and 17 in all tumors. Chromosome 3p deletion was detected in 41% of all metastatic RCC specimens, and trisomy of chromosomes 7 and/or 17 was detected in 16%. Of metastatic CCRCC, chromosome 3p deletion was detected in 63%. Of metastatic PRCC, 75% showed trisomy of chromosomes 7 and/or 17. Of the tumors not previously classified, 6% were positive for CK7, and 64% were positive for AMACR; 35% showed chromosome 3p deletion, and 16% showed trisomy of chromosomes 7 and/or 17. Combined analysis of immunohistochemistry and cytogenetics enabled reclassification of 52% of these metastatic tumors not previously classified. Our findings support the utility of immunohistochemistry and cytogenetics for subtyping metastatic RCC.
    Molecular Cancer 02/2014; 13(1):39. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-13-39 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Truong et al/Alpha-Methylacyl-CoA Racemase in Gastric Cancer including hepatocellular carcinoma, prostatic adenocarcinoma, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, papillary renal cell carcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, and follicular thyroid carcinoma [1] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]. However, the expression of AMACR in gastric neoplasms is unknown. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR [P504S]) is a mitochondrial and peroxisomal enzyme involved in beta-oxidation of dietary branched-chain fatty acids and their derivatives. Recent studies showed that AMACR is expressed in several neoplasms, including prostate and colon cancer. However, AMACR expression in gastric neoplasms has yet to be thoroughly investigated. Because AMACR overexpression in human solid tumors is a potential target for cancer treatment, we aimed to evaluate the expression of AMACR in a large cohort of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. The study evaluated 249 primary gastric adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry. Nonneoplastic gastric tissue samples from various sites (antrum, body, fundus, and pylorus) were also examined. The immunopositivity of each sample was graded on a scale from 0 to 3 (0, no expression; 1, weak expression, 2, intermediate expression; 3, strong expression). We observed AMACR expression in 141 tumor cases: 44, 47, and 50 cases had weak, intermediate, and strong expression, respectively. Both intestinal and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma cases had overexpression of AMACR, however intestinal adenocarcinoma had significantly higher expression than did signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (p<0.05). Nonneoplastic gastric mucosa did not show AMACR expression. The results of our study demonstrate that AMACR expression is upregulated in gastric cancer, and suggest that further prospective studies to explore the potential role of AMACR as a therapeutic target for gastric cancer are warranted.
    International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 02/2008; 1(6):518-23. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    • "Gene expression profiling has identified novel molecular markers that are differentially expressed in different subtypes of renal epithelial neoplasms, including α-methyl acyl CoA racemase [9] [10], C-Kit [11] [12] [13], Ecadherin [14], parvalbumin [15] and Ron [16]. Another marker, claudin-7, has been found to be overexpressed in chromophobe RCC, but not in oncocytoma [17] by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Claudins, a family of tight junction-related transmembrane proteins, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various human neoplasms. Expression of claudin-7 was increased in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in a recent oligonucleotide microarray study. We studied the expression of claudin-7 in benign and neoplastic kidneys by immunohistochemical staining. Distal nephron (distal convoluted tubule and thick ascending limb of Henle's loop) epithelium showed strong membranous staining in 100% (174/174) of the cases. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma was positive for claudin-7 expression in 100% (36/36) of cases, while papillary renal cell carcinoma, oncocytoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma were positive in 90% (71/80), 45% (21/47) and 7% (7/98) of the cases, respectively. Differential expression of Claudin-7 in different types of renal cell neoplasms can be useful in their differential diagnosis, particularly when used in a panel of markers. In addition, results from this study support previous reports of distal nephron origin for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma. The data also suggest that, as far as claudin-7 expression is concerned, papillary renal cell carcinoma may be more closely related to the distal nephron, rather than the proximal nephron.
    International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 02/2008; 1(1):57-64. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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