Prevalence of cephalosporin resistance in Enterobacteriacae in London and South-East England

Healthcare-Associated Infection and Antimicrobial Resistance Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 5.31). 09/2006; 58(2):320-6. DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkl217
Source: PubMed


To investigate the molecular epidemiology of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in London and South-East England.
A prospective study involving 16 hospital microbiology laboratories in London and South-East England was undertaken over a 12 week period. Each laboratory submitted up to 100 consecutive cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates judged clinically significant by microbiology staff. Centralized testing was undertaken to confirm organism identification and cephalosporin resistance and to analyse resistance mechanisms.
The predominant mechanism of cephalosporin resistance in isolates from both hospital and community settings was the production of CTX-M-type ESBLs, with CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli as the most numerous resistant organism overall. Other major mechanisms of cephalosporin resistance included production of non-CTX-M ESBLs and AmpC beta-lactamases. Most ESBL (both CTX-M and non-CTX-M) producers were multiply resistant to non-beta-lactam antibiotics, including trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin.
CTX-M enzymes, which were unrecorded in the UK prior to 2000, have become the major mechanism of cephalosporin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae in South-East England. E. coli has overtaken Klebsiella and Enterobacter spp. to become the major host for ESBLs. Due to the multiple antibiotic resistance exhibited by many ESBL-producers, these changes have major implications for antimicrobial therapy.

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Available from: Russell Hope, May 27, 2014
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    • "The current levels of resistance to antibiotics commonly used locally for empirical treatment are alarming. For instance, the emergence of strains producing extended spectrum beta lactamases and others exhibiting resistance to quinolones is on the increase and threatens the empirical use of cephalosporin and ciprofloxacin.8 Resistance of Vibrio cholerae to tetracycline was reported in Tanzania as early as 1980.9 "
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    ABSTRACT: Provision of pharmaceutical services in accredited drug-dispensing outlets (ADDOs) in Tanzania has not been reported. This study compared the antibiotics dispensing practice between ADDOs and part II shops, or duka la dawa baridi (DLDBs), in Tanzania. This was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in ADDOs and DLDBs. A simulated client method for data collection was used, and a total of 85 ADDOs, located in Mvomero, Kilombero, and Morogoro rural districts, were compared with 60 DLDBs located in Kibaha district. The research assistants posed as simulated clients and requested to buy antibiotics from ADDOs and DLDBs after presenting a case scenario or disease condition. Among the diseases presented were those requiring antibiotics and those usually managed only by oral rehydration salt or analgesics. The simulated clients wanted to know the antibiotics that were available at the shop. The posed questions set a convincing ground to the dispenser either to dispense the antibiotic directly, request a prescription, or refer the patient to a health facility. Proportions were used to summarize categorical variables between ADDOs and DLDBs, and the chi-square test was used to test for statistical difference between the two drug-outlet types in terms of antibiotic-dispensing practice. As many as 40% of trained ADDO dispensers no longer worked at the ADDO shops, so some of the shops employed untrained staff. A larger proportion of ADDOs than DLDBs dispensed antibiotics without prescriptions (P = 0.004). The overall results indicate that there was no difference between the two types of shops in terms of adhering to regulations for dispensing antibiotics. However, in some circumstances, eg, antibiotic sale without prescription and no referral made, for complicated cases, ADDOs performed worse than DLDBs. As many as 30% of DLDBs and 35% of ADDOs dispensed incomplete doses of antibiotics. In both ADDOs and DLDBs, fortified procaine penicillin powder was dispensed as topical application for injuries. There was no statistical difference between ADDOs and DLDBs in the violation of dispensing practice and both ADDOs and DLDBs expressed poor knowledge of the basic pharmacology of antibiotics.
    Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety 01/2013; 5(1):5-11. DOI:10.2147/DHPS.S36409
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    • "Our study also showed high resistance rates to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole but none of the isolates was resistant to temocillin, amikacin or meropenem. Very similar results have been previously found in Cameroon from outpatients and inpatients [24] and in other countries: Morocco [25], Benin [14], Tanzania [15], Ethiopia [26], England [27] and Canada [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is no information regarding the resistance mechanisms of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in community setting in Cameroon. The current study aimed to determine the proportion of ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and to analyse some risk factors associated with ESBL carriage. Faecal samples were collected from 208 different outpatients and 150 healthy student volunteers between 3 January and 3 April 2009. Enterobacterial isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk synergy test. Presumptive ESBL-producing isolates with positive synergy test were identified by Mass Spectrometry using the BioTyper MALDI-TOF. For such ESBL positive isolates, antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the Vitek 2 system. PCR and sequencing were performed for the detection of different types of ESBL genes in presumptive ESBL-producing isolates. Statistical methods were used for the univariate calculation of risk factors. During the study period, a total of 358 faecal samples were analysed; 58 of such samples (16%) showed an ESBL phenotype and were confirmed by PCR. The proportion of ESBL producers in faecal carriage was statistically different between outpatients and student volunteers (23.1% vs. 6.7%: p < 0.000). According to a univariate analysis, previous use of antibiotics (ciprofloxacin) appeared to be a risk factor for ESBL carriage (p < 0.05).Escherichia coli was the species most frequently isolated among the ESBL producers in outpatients (66.7%) and student volunteers (90%). Isolates showed additional resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole but none of them was resistant to temocillin, amikacin or meropenem. Most of the strains (97%) produced a CTX-M group 1 enzymes [CTX-M-15 (98%) or CTX-M-1 (2%)] and the remaining strains produced SHV-12 enzyme (3%). The use of drugs such as amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole does not seem appropriate for empirical treatment because of emerging resistance. The implementation in Cameroon or in other African countries of methods of screening ESBL-producing organisms in routine laboratories is of great importance in order for us to offer patients appropriate treatment and for infection control efforts to succeed.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 03/2012; 12(1):53. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-12-53 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    • "As anticipated, we found that E. coli by far accounted as the most frequent ESBL-producing enterobacteria species. A recent study carried out in 2004 and involving 16 laboratories in London and in the South-Eastern part of England showed that among 1127 cephalosporin-resistant gram-negative isolates from both hospital and community settings, E. coli also accounted as the largest group (51%) and, in particular, CTX-M producing strains [30]. The high prevalence of CTX-M-1 group ESBLs (mainly comprising the CTX-M-15 type) is an emerging and well described problem worldwide [31-37]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Description of the clinical pictures of patients colonized or infected by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates and admitted to hospital are rather scarce in Europe. However, a better delineation of the clinical patterns associated with the carriage of ESBL-producing isolates may allow healthcare providers to identify more rapidly at risk patients. This matter is of particular concern because of the growing proportion of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae species isolates worldwide. We undertook a descriptive analysis of 114 consecutive patients in whom ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from clinical specimens over a 20-month period. Clinical data were obtained through retrospective analysis of medical record charts. Microbiological cultures were carried out by standard laboratory methods. The proportion of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains after exclusion of duplicate isolates was 4.5% and the incidence rate was 4.3 cases/1000 patients admitted. Healthcare-associated acquisition was important (n = 104) while community-acquisition was less frequently found (n = 10). Among the former group, two-thirds of the patients were aged over 65 years and 24% of these were living in nursing homes. Sixty-eight (65%) of the patients with healthcare-associated ESBL, were considered clinically infected. In this group, the number and severity of co-morbidities was high, particularly including diabetes mellitus and chronic renal insufficiency. Other known risk factors for ESBL colonization or infection such as prior antibiotic exposure, urinary catheter or previous hospitalisation were also often found. The four main diagnostic categories were: urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, septicaemia and intra-abdominal infections. For hospitalized patients, the median hospital length of stay was 23 days and the average mortality rate during hospitalization was 13% (Confidence Interval 95%: 7-19). Escherichia coli, by far, accounted as the most common ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae species (77/114; [68%]) while CTX-M-1 group was by far the most prevalent ESBL enzyme (n = 56). In this retrospective study, the clinical profiles of patients carrying healthcare-associated ESBL-producing Enterobacteriacae is characterized by a high prevalence rate of several major co-morbidities and potential known risk factors. Both, the length of hospital stay and overall hospital mortality rates were particularly high. A prospective case-control matched study should be designed and performed in order to control for possible inclusion bias.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2011; 11(1):12. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-11-12 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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