Safety and immunogenicity of two live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine candidates, 116E and I321, in infants: results of a randomised controlled trial.
ABSTRACT We evaluated safety and immunogenicity of two orally administered human rotavirus vaccine candidates 116E and I321. Ninety healthy infants aged 8 weeks received a single dose of 116E (10(5)FFu (florescence focus units)), I321 (10(5)FFu) or placebo. There were no significant differences in the number of adverse events. Fever was reported by 6/30, 1/30 and 5/30 in the 116E, I321 and placebo groups; the corresponding figures for diarrhoea were 5/30, 8/29 and 3/30. Serum IgA seroconversion rates were 73%, 39% and 20% in the 116E, I321 and placebo groups, respectively. Vaccine virus was shed on days 3, 7 or 28 in 11/30 infants of the 116E and none in the other two groups. The 116E strain is attenuated, clinically safe and highly immunogenic with a single dose.
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ABSTRACT: Rotaviruses (RVs) are leading causes of severe diarrhea and vomiting in infants and young children. RVs with G10P genotype specificity have been associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic neonatal infections in Vellore, India. To identify possible viral genetic determinants responsible for differences in symptomology, the genome sequences of G10P RVs in stool samples of 19 neonates with symptomatic infections and 20 neonates with asymptomatic infections were determined by Sanger and next-generation sequencing. The data showed that all 39 viruses had identical genotype constellations (G10-P-I2-R2-C2-M2-A1-N1-T1-E2-H3), the same as the previously characterized symptomatic Vellore isolate N155. The data also showed that the RNA and deduced protein sequences of all the Vellore G10P viruses were nearly identical; no nucleotide or amino acid differences were found that correlated with symptomatic versus asymptomatic infection. Next-generation sequencing data revealed that some stool samples, both from neonates with symptomatic and asymptomatic infections, also contained one or more positive-strand RNA viruses (Aichi virus, astrovirus, or salivirus/klassevirus) suspected of being potential causes of pediatric gastroenteritis. However, none of the positive-strand RNA viruses could be causally associated with the development of symptoms. These results indicate that the diversity of clinical symptoms in Vellore neonates does not result from genetic differences among G10P RVs; instead, other undefined factors appear to influence whether neonates develop gastrointestinal disease symptoms.Journal of Virology 06/2014; 88(16). DOI:10.1128/JVI.01417-14 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in developing countries. Safe, effective, and affordable rotavirus vaccines are needed in these countries. We aimed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a monovalent human-bovine rotavirus vaccine for severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in low-resource urban and rural settings in India. We did a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial at three sites in Delhi (urban), Pune (rural), and Vellore (urban and rural) between March 11, 2011, and Nov 5, 2012. Infants aged 6-7 weeks were randomly assigned (2:1), via a central interactive voice or web response system with a block size of 12, to receive either three doses of oral human-bovine natural reassortant vaccine (116E) or placebo at ages 6-7 weeks, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks. Infants' families, study investigators, paediatricians in referral hospitals, laboratory staff, and committee members were all masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (≥11 on the Vesikari scale). Efficacy outcomes and adverse events were ascertained through active surveillance. Analysis was by intention to treat and per protocol. The trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registry-India (CTRI/2010/091/000102) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01305109). 4532 infants were assigned to receive the 116E vaccine and 2267 to receive placebo, of whom 4354 (96%) and 2187 (96%) infants, respectively, were included in the primary per-protocol efficacy analysis. 71 events of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis were reported in 4752 person-years in infants in the vaccine group compared with 76 events in 2360 person-years in those in the placebo group; vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was 53·6% (95% CI 35·0-66·9; p=0·0013) and 56·4% (36·6-70·1; p<0·0001) in the first year of life. The number of infants needed to be immunised to prevent one severe rotavirus gastroenteritis episode was 55 (95% CI 37-97). The incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis per 100 person-years was 1·5 in the vaccine group and 3·2 in the placebo group, with an incidence rate ratio of 0·46 (95% CI 0·33-0·65). Prevalence of immediate, solicited, and serious adverse events was similar in both groups. One case of urticaria in the vaccine group and one each of acute gastroenteritis and suspected sepsis in the placebo group were regarded as related to the study product. We recorded six cases of intussusception in the vaccine group and two in the placebo group, all of which happened after the third dose. 25 (<1%) infants in the vaccine group and 17 (<1%) in the placebo group died; no death was regarded as related to the study product. Monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine is effective and well tolerated in Indian infants. Department of Biotechnology and the Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council, Government of India; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to PATH, USA; Research Council of Norway; UK Department for International Development; National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA; and Bharat Biotech International, Hyderabad, India.The Lancet 03/2014; 383(9935). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62630-6 · 39.21 Impact Factor
Vaccine 08/2014; 32:A3–A4. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.075 · 3.49 Impact Factor