Osmotic shock-induced suicidal death of erythrocytes.
ABSTRACT Osmotic shock triggers eryptosis, a suicidal death of erythrocytes characterized by cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing and phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. Phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes are recognized by macrophages, engulfed, degraded and thus cleared from circulating blood. Eryptosis following osmotic shock is mediated by two distinct signalling pathways. On the one hand, osmotic shock stimulates a cyclooxygenase leading to formation of prostaglandin E2 and subsequent activation of Ca2+-permeable cation channels. On the other hand, osmotic shock activates a phospholipase A2 leading to release of platelet activating factor, which in turn activates a sphingomyelinase and thus stimulates the formation of ceramide. The increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations on the one hand and ceramide on the other trigger phospholipid scrambling of the cell membrane with the subsequent shift of phosphatidylserine from the inner to the outer cell membrane leaflet. Ca2+ further activates Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels leading to cellular KCl loss and further cell shrinkage. The cation channels are inhibited by Cl- anions, erythropoietin and dopamine. The sphingomyelinase is inhibited by high concentrations of urea. Thus, the high Cl- and urea concentrations in renal medulla presumably prevent the triggering of eryptosis despite hyperosmolarity. The mechanisms involved in eryptosis may not only affect the survival of erythrocytes but may be similarly operative in nucleated cells exposed to osmotic shock.
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ABSTRACT: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a known regulator of cellular and systemic energy balance, is now recognized to control cell division, cell polarity and cell migration, all of which depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report the effects of A769662, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on cytoskeletal organization and signalling in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We show that AMPK activation induced shortening or radiation of stress fibers, uncoupling from paxillin and predominance of cortical F-actin. In parallel, Rho-kinase downstream targets, namely myosin regulatory light chain and cofilin, were phosphorylated. These effects resembled the morphological changes in MDCK cells exposed to hyperosmotic shock, which led to Ca(2+)-dependent AMPK activation via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta(CaMKKbeta), a known upstream kinase of AMPK. Indeed, hypertonicity-induced AMPK activation was markedly reduced by the STO-609 CaMKKbeta inhibitor, as was the increase in MLC and cofilin phosphorylation. We suggest that AMPK links osmotic stress to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2010; 396(3):656-61. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cell volume perturbation initiates a wide array of intracellular signalling cascades, leading to protective and adaptive events and, in most cases, activation of volume-regulatory osmolyte transport, water loss, and hence restoration of cell volume and cellular function. Cell volume is challenged not only under physiological conditions, e.g. following accumulation of nutrients, during epithelial absorption/secretion processes, following hormonal/autocrine stimulation, and during induction of apoptosis, but also under pathophysiological conditions, e.g. hypoxia, ischaemia and hyponatremia/hypernatremia. On the other hand, it has recently become clear that an increase or reduction in cell volume can also serve as a specific signal in the regulation of physiological processes such as transepithelial transport, cell migration, proliferation and death. Although the mechanisms by which cell volume perturbations are sensed are still far from clear, significant progress has been made with respect to the nature of the sensors, transducers and effectors that convert a change in cell volume into a physiological response. In the present review, we summarize recent major developments in the field, and emphasize the relationship between cell volume regulation and organism physiology/pathophysiology.Acta Physiologica 11/2008; 194(4):255-82. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The functional properties of erythrocytes under development of apoptotic process in these cells were investigated by the low angle light scattering technique. Apoptosis induced by ionomycin was associated with an initial decrease of cell volume and caused formation of echinocytes. After that the cells restored their volume forming rounded erythrocytes with rugged membrane capable to agglomerate with each other. At the late stages of apoptosis, small fragmented cells can be revealed. Preapoptotic red blood cells (at all stages of apoptosis) manifested an enormous tolerance to hypotonic loading, whereas control cells hemolyzed just after reaching a critical volume (∼150 fl). Acidic hemolysis cannot differentiate between control and preapoptotic erythrocytes, the cells being hemolyzed not reaching the critical volume. Placing the control erythrocytes to a medium with ammonia ions instead of sodium ions caused an initial increase of cell volume above the critical point, and then it was also followed by hemolysis. Under ammonia loading, an initial rate of the cell volume growth and a ratio of the hemolyzed cells were significantly reduced in preapoptotic cells. Key wordsred blood cells-apoptosis-hemolysis-Cl−/HCO3 −-antiporter-deformationBiochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series A Membrane and Cell Biology 4(1):22-31.