Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale

Equipo de Salud Mental, Talarrubias, (Badajoz).
Actas espanolas de psiquiatria (Impact Factor: 1.2). 05/2006; 34(3):185-92.
Source: PubMed


The Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale (CDS) is a self-rating questionnaire constructed to capture the frequency and duration of depersonalization symptoms over the last six months. The instrument has proved to be valid and reliable and can be useful in both clinical and neurobiological research.
This paper presents the Spanish adaptation and validation of the CDS. The study was carried out in two stages. First, we developed the Spanish version of the CDS by means of a cross-cultural adaptation methodology. Second, the CDS was tried on a sample of 130 subjects: 77 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, 35 with depression disorders and 18 with anxiety disorders. Scores were compared against clinical diagnoses (gold standard). Furthermore, all the subjects of the study were administered the following: Dissociation Experiences Scale (DES), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS).
38 patients (29.2 %) had depersonalization symptoms. The scale showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha > 0.9 and split-half reliability > 0.8) and a test-retest reliability of 0.391. Convergent validity was 0.65 (p < 0.001) and discriminant validity was 0.308 (p < 0.05). The area under the ROC curve was 0.94. A cut-off of 71 appears to be most useful (sensitivity and specificity were 76.3 % and 89.1 %, respectively).
The Spanish version of the CDS has good reliability and validity, similar to the original instrument.

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    • "It captures the frequency and duration of depersonalization experiences, exists both in a state (CDS-22) and a trait (CDS-30) version, and has been translated into several other languages (e.g. Michal et al., 2004; Molina Castillo et al., 2006). 274 M. GAEBLER ET ALII [3] In line with patient reports, the vast majority of cases in the literature, the view of the ICD-10 as well as current recommendations for the revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 (Spiegel et al., 2011), we will not explicitly distinguish between depersonalization and derealization in this text. "
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    • "The severity and phenomenology of depersonalization was determined by means of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS), a 29-item self-rating scale designed to explore in detail the phenomenology of depersonalization within the last 6 months (Sierra and Berrios, 2000). The scale has been used in different cultures and consistently found to have a good psychometric profile (Michal et al., 2004; Molina Castillo et al., 2006; Sugiura et al., 2009). We used the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) as a primary measure of anxiety (Beck et al., 1988) given that it is a widely validated scale, which comprehensively explores somatic and cognitive anxiety symptoms. "
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