Tracheotomy in very low birth weight neonates: indications and outcomes.
ABSTRACT To review incidence of, indications for, and outcomes of tracheotomy in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.
Retrospective review in tertiary care hospital.
Eighteen VLBW (<1,500 g) infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia undergoing tracheotomy in the neonatal intensive care unit between October 1997 and June 2002 were studied. Controls consisted of 36 VLBW infants undergoing intubation without tracheotomy, two per study infant, matched by gestational age and weight. Outcome measures included duration and number of intubation events, time to decannulation, complications, comorbidities, length of stay, and speech, language, and swallowing measures.
Infants undergoing tracheotomy had an average duration of intubation of 128.8 days with a median number of 11.5 intubation events, both significantly greater than those of controls. Percentage of those with laryngotracheal stenosis was 44% of study infants had laryngotracheal stenosis compared to 1.6% in all intubated VLBW infants. The tracheotomy group had a significantly higher incidence of gastroesophageal reflux, pulmonary hypertension, and gastrostomy tube placement. The overall tracheotomy-related complication rate was 38.9%. Three were lost to follow-up, and five deaths occurred, two possibly tracheotomy-related. Six of ten were decannulated by an average time of 3.8 years, two of six after laryngotracheal reconstruction. Four of ten remained cannulated for a variety of reasons. Disorders of speech, language, and swallowing were common.
When considering tracheotomy in VLBW infants, the total number of intubation events should be monitored as well as the total duration of intubation. The relatively high incidence of laryngotracheal stenosis argues for earlier endoscopy and possibly earlier tracheotomy in infants with developing stenoses.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To compare short-term outcomes of infants who underwent early versus late tracheostomy during their initial hospitalization after birth and determine the association, if any, between tracheostomy timing and outcomes. Study Design: Retrospective chart review of infants who underwent a tracheostomy during their initial hospitalization at a single site. Results: The median (range) gestational age of our cohort (n=127) was 28 (23-42) weeks and birth weight was 988 (390-4030) grams. Tracheostomy indications included airway lesions (47%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (25%), both (22%) and others (6%). Median postmenstrual age (PMA) at tracheostomy was 45 (35-75) weeks. Death occurred in 27 (21%) infants and 65 (51%) infants were mechanically ventilated. G-tube was present at discharge in 42 (33%) infants. Infants who underwent early tracheostomy (< 45 weeks PMA) (n=66) had significantly lower gestational ages, weights and respiratory support than the late (≥ 45 weeks PMA) (n=61) group. Death (29.5% vs.14%), home ventilation (41% vs. 21%) and G tube (44% vs. 14%) were significantly more frequent in the late tracheostomy group. On bivariate regression, outcomes were not independently associated with tracheostomy timing, after adjustment for gestational age and respiratory support. Conclusions: Of infants who underwent tracheostomy during the initial hospitalization after birth, 21% died. On adjusted analysis, tracheostomy timing was not independently associated with outcomes.The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 11/2013; · 1.36 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine the functional outcomes of children who underwent a tracheostomy in the initial hospitalization after birth and to determine their correlates. STUDY DESIGN: We administered the validated 43-item Functional Status-II (FS-II) questionnaire by Stein and Jessop over the telephone to caregivers of surviving children. The FS-II items generated a total score, age-specific: (1) total; (2) general health (GH); and (3) responsiveness, activity, or interpersonal functioning (IPF) scores in specific age group categories. RESULTS: FS-II was administered to 51/62 (82.2%) survivors at a median (range) age of 5 (1-10) years; 27% children were on the ventilator and 43% required devices. About 40% of children had a median of 1 (1-4) hospitalization in the previous 6 months. Scores were >2 SD below means in 55%, 24%, and 55% cases for age-specific T, GH, and R/A/IPF scores respectively. The T and R/A/IPF scales were significantly higher in those with private, rather than public, maternal insurance, as were T and R/A/IPF scores for children ≥4 years, compared with younger children. On regression analysis, FS-II T, GH, and R/A/IPF scores were independently associated with maternal private insurance (P = .02). R/A/IPF scores were also significantly associated with corrected age at FS-II administration. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of surviving children who underwent tracheostomy during their initial hospitalization remained technology-dependent. The parental FS-II questionnaires revealed low R/A/IPF scores, especially at younger ages and in those with maternal public insurance. Further research on family-level interventions to improve functional outcomes in this population is warranted.The Journal of pediatrics 05/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm (<30 weeks) infants who underwent tracheostomy. Retrospective cohort study from 16 centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network over 10 years (2001-2011). Infants who survived to at least 36 weeks (N = 8683), including 304 infants with tracheostomies, were studied. Primary outcome was death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI; a composite of ≥1 of developmental delay, neurologic impairment, profound hearing loss, severe visual impairment) at a corrected age of 18-22 months. Outcomes were compared using multiple logistic regression. We assessed the impact of timing by comparing outcomes of infants who underwent tracheostomy before and after 120 days of life. Tracheostomies were associated with all neonatal morbidities examined and with most adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Death or NDI occurred in 83% of infants with tracheostomies and 40% of those without (OR adjusted for center 7.0, 95% CI 5.2-9.5). After adjustment for potential confounders, odds of death or NDI remained higher (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.4-4.6), but odds of death alone were lower (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.7) among infants with tracheostomies. Death or NDI was lower in infants who received their tracheostomies before, rather than after, 120 days of life (aOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9). Tracheostomy in preterm infants is associated with adverse developmental outcomes and cannot mitigate the significant risk associated with many complications of prematurity. These data may inform counseling about tracheostomy in this vulnerable population.The Journal of pediatrics 01/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor