Effects of childhood primary hypertension on carotid intima media thickness - A matched controlled study
ABSTRACT To determine whether carotid intima media thickness is increased in children with primary hypertension, the current study compared carotid intima media thickness in hypertensive children with that of normotensive control subjects matched closely for body mass index and determined the relationship between carotid intima media thickness and hypertension severity determined by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Children with newly diagnosed office hypertension (n=28) had carotid intima media thickness, left ventricular mass index, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring performed. Carotid intima media thickness was performed in normotensive control subjects (n=28) matched pairwise to hypertensive subjects for age (+/-1 year), gender, and body mass index (+/-10%). Eighty-two percent of subjects were overweight or obese (body mass index > or =85th percentile). The median carotid intima media thickness of hypertensive subjects was greater than that of matched controls (0.67 versus 0.63 mm; P=0.045). In the hypertensive subjects, carotid intima media thickness correlated strongly with several ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters, with the strongest correlation for daytime systolic blood pressure index (r=0.57; P=0.003). In the hypertensive group, the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was 32%, but unlike carotid intima media thickness, left ventricular mass index did not correlate with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Together, the findings that hypertensive subjects had increased carotid intima media thickness compared with matched controls and that higher carotid intima media thickness correlated with more severe hypertension by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring provide strong evidence that carotid intima media thickness is increased in childhood primary hypertension, independent of the effects of obesity.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jason Roy, Dec 14, 2013
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ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis causing cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the developed world. Early precursors of vascular changes - subclinical atherosclerosis - warrant special attention as this process can be stabilized or even reversed if treated in time. Sonographic Intima Media Thickness measurement of the carotid artery (cIMT: carotid Intima-Media-Thickness) is considered a valid surrogate marker for cardiovascular risk allowing assessment of atherosclerotic changes at a very early stage. It is easy to apply due to its non-invasive character. Moreover, cIMT has been proven to provide reliable and reproducible results both in adult and adolescent patients. For the paediatric age group, several characteristics deserve special consideration. The heterogeneity of techniques of scanning, measurement and interpretation impede the comparison and interpretation of IMT values so far. Also, age- and sex-dependent normative data have to be considered for interpretation. Thus, the Association for European Paediatric Cardiology (AEPC) Working Group on Cardiovascular Prevention concludes to refer a statement on cIMT scanning, measurement and interpretation with special focus on paediatric patients. This statement includes an overview on normative data available as well as a practical guideline for the setting, scanning, measurement and interpretation of IMT values. Synchronizing different measurement methods will allow for comparing the results of several research centers. By that, in a large patient number, sufficient information may be given to assess the long-term endpoints of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Atherosclerosis 12/2014; 238(2):380-387. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.12.029 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Elevated blood pressure (BP) in adults is associated with increased arterial stiffness and thickness; however, its effect on arterial health in a pediatric population is less understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between childhood BP and arterial markers of arteriosclerotic progression. The study consisted of 106 children across a wide range of BP values divided into 2 BP groups: high BP (HBP; ≥95th percentile; n = 21) and normal BP (NBP; <90th percentile; n = 85) based on consistent automated BP measures taken at 2 time points. The laboratory examination involved systemic pulse wave velocity (PWV), common carotid artery (CCA) intima media thickness (IMT) and distensibility, as well as body mass index (BMI) and pubertal maturation. BMI and heart rate, as well as PWV (HBP: n = 15 and NBP: n = 56), were higher in the HBP group (p < 0.001) with no difference between groups for both CCA distensibility and IMT (HBP: n = 21 and NBP: n = 83). Multivariate linear regression revealed that BP group (p = 0.003) was an independent predictor of PWV after controlling for age, sex, BMI, heart rate, and maturation. Our findings demonstrate a higher systemic PWV with no difference in CCA IMT or distensibility in children with elevated BP. Hence, markers of cardiovascular disease risk are augmented in healthy children with elevated BP.Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 09/2014; 40(1):1-7. DOI:10.1139/apnm-2014-0206 · 2.23 Impact Factor
Hypertension 02/2015; 65(5). DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.03586 · 7.63 Impact Factor