Article

Electrophysiological analysis of error monitoring in schizophrenia.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.86). 06/2006; 115(2):239-50. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.115.2.239
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this study, the authors sought to determine whether abnormalities exhibited by schizophrenia patients in event-related potentials associated with self-monitoring--the error-related negativity (ERN) and the correct response negativity (CRN)--persist under conditions that maximize ERN amplitude and to examine relationships between the ERN and behavior in schizophrenia. Participants performed a flanker task under 2 contingencies: one encouraging accuracy and another emphasizing speed. Compared with healthy participants, in schizophrenia patients the ERN was reduced in the accuracy condition, and the CRN was enhanced in the speed condition. The amplitude of a later ERP component, the error positivity, did not differ between groups in either task condition. Reduced self-correction and increased accuracy following errors were associated with larger ERNs in both groups. Thus, ERN generation appears to be abnormal in schizophrenia patients even under conditions demonstrated to maximize ERN amplitude; however, functional characteristics of the ERN appear to be intact.

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Available from: Sarah E Morris, Jul 29, 2015
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    • "The N450 has been investigated in only a single study in chronic schizophrenia, where it was found to be reduced in amplitude (McNeely et al., 2003). Post-error performance adjustments have been evaluated in some of these studies, which have found attenuations of the PES (Alain et al., 2002) and PEA (Morris et al., 2006) in the patients; other studies have found either normal PES in both schizophrenia and control subjects (Mathalon et al., 2002; Foti et al., 2012; Perez et al., 2012), or alternatively no PES detectable in either group (Bates et al., 2002, 2004; Morris, et al., 2006). To date, only one study has evaluated the ERN in a recent-onset schizophrenia sample (within two years of overt illness onset). "
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    • "This discrepancy in the focus of encouragement might have unexpectedly affected the results. In contrast, CRN amplitude was significantly enhanced in patients with schizophrenia, consistent with previous studies (Alain et al., 2002; Mathalon et al., 2002; Kim et al., 2006; Morris et al., 2006). Moreover, a significant negative correlation was found between ERN amplitudes at the frontocentral electrodes and gray matter volumes of the left cognitive regions, only in healthy controls. "
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    • "Notably, DA neurons in the animal midbrain respond phasically to primary rewards and stimuli that come, via learning, to predict reward (Fig. 3.2). The pattern of these phasic responses resembles a reward prediction error signal derived from formal reinforcement learning models (Dayan and Balleine 2002; Bayer and Glimcher 2005; Daw and Doya 2006; Morris et al. 2006). Neurons in the BG have been shown to predict reward by firing vigorously in advance of reward upon completion of the requirements for reward attainment (Schultz 1998), hinting that predictive capacity may be a general feature of some basal ganglia structures. "
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