Electrophysiological analysis of error monitoring in schizophrenia

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.86). 06/2006; 115(2):239-50. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.115.2.239
Source: PubMed


In this study, the authors sought to determine whether abnormalities exhibited by schizophrenia patients in event-related potentials associated with self-monitoring--the error-related negativity (ERN) and the correct response negativity (CRN)--persist under conditions that maximize ERN amplitude and to examine relationships between the ERN and behavior in schizophrenia. Participants performed a flanker task under 2 contingencies: one encouraging accuracy and another emphasizing speed. Compared with healthy participants, in schizophrenia patients the ERN was reduced in the accuracy condition, and the CRN was enhanced in the speed condition. The amplitude of a later ERP component, the error positivity, did not differ between groups in either task condition. Reduced self-correction and increased accuracy following errors were associated with larger ERNs in both groups. Thus, ERN generation appears to be abnormal in schizophrenia patients even under conditions demonstrated to maximize ERN amplitude; however, functional characteristics of the ERN appear to be intact.

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    • "Pe and Pc findings have also varied, with some studies reporting the amplitudes to be normal in schizophrenia (Alain et al., 2002; Mathalon et al., 2002) and others reporting a decrease (Perez et al., 2011; Foti et al., 2012). Inconsistent findings may be due to task differences such as level of difficulty and emphasis on accuracy or speed (Morris et al., 2006). Reduced ERN has also been found in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients (Simmonite et al., 2012), clinical patients at high risk for schizophrenia (Perez et al., 2011), and college students with high self-reported schizotypy (Kim et al., 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: Metacognitive abnormalities have been implicated in the experience of psychotic symptoms; however, the process through which this occurs remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the association of self-reported schizotypy with metacognitive beliefs and neural activity related to higher-order cognition. Event-related potentials (ERPs) including the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) were recorded during a Flanker task in 20 controls and 22 individuals with high self-reported schizotypy on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised (SPQ-BR). Participants continuously evaluated their task performance and completed the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30). The high schizotypy group demonstrated higher scores on all subscales of the MCQ-30. In contrast, task performance, accuracy of self-performance evaluation, and amplitudes of the ERN and Pe did not differ between groups. The MCQ-30 factors that measure cognitive confidence and positive beliefs about worry significantly predicted SPQ-BR total score, whereas ERPs did not. High self-reported schizotypy appears to be more associated with dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs than physiological abnormalities in brain areas related to metacognition.
    09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.09.006
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    • "Reduced ERN amplitude has also been reported in individuals with high clinical (Laurens et al., 2010; Perez et al., 2011) and genetic (Simmonite et al., 2012) risk for schizophrenia, indicating a possible trait marker for vulnerability to psychosis. Post-error reaction time slowing has been found in some studies (Alain et al., 2002; Kerns et al., 2005), but not all (Bates et al., 2002; Mathalon et al., 2002; Morris et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Previous research suggests that deficits in error monitoring contribute to psychosis and poor functioning. Consistent with the NIMH Research Domain Criteria initiative, this study examined electrophysiological brain activity, appraisal of self-performance, and personality traits related to psychosis during error monitoring in individuals with and without a history of psychosis across disorders. Methods: Error-related negativity (ERN), correct response negativity (CRN), error positivity (Pe), and correct response positivity (Pc) were recorded in 14 individuals with a history of psychosis (PSY) and 12 individuals with no history of psychosis (CTR) during a flanker task. Participants continuously rated their performance and completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised (SPQ-BR). Results: Compared with CTR, PSY exhibited reduced ERN and Pe amplitudes and was also less accurate at evaluating their performance. Group differences were specific to error trials. Across all participants, smaller Pe amplitudes were associated with greater scores on the SPQ-BR Cognitive-Perceptual factor and less accuracy in subjective identification of errors. Conclusions: Individuals with a history of psychosis, regardless of diagnosis, demonstrated abnormal neural activity and imprecise confidence in response during error monitoring. Significance: Results suggest that disruptions in neural circuitry may underlie specific clinical symptoms across diagnostic categories.
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    • "The N450 has been investigated in only a single study in chronic schizophrenia, where it was found to be reduced in amplitude (McNeely et al., 2003). Post-error performance adjustments have been evaluated in some of these studies, which have found attenuations of the PES (Alain et al., 2002) and PEA (Morris et al., 2006) in the patients; other studies have found either normal PES in both schizophrenia and control subjects (Mathalon et al., 2002; Foti et al., 2012; Perez et al., 2012), or alternatively no PES detectable in either group (Bates et al., 2002, 2004; Morris, et al., 2006). To date, only one study has evaluated the ERN in a recent-onset schizophrenia sample (within two years of overt illness onset). "
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia patients experience cognitive control disturbances, manifest in altered neural signatures during action monitoring. It remains unclear whether error- and conflict-monitoring disturbances co-occur, and whether they are observed in recent-onset psychosis patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. We tested electrophysiological measures of action monitoring in these patients. 73 schizophrenia patients (SZ), 26 bipolar disorder type I patients (BP), each within one year of psychosis onset, and 54 healthy control subjects (HC) underwent EEG during Stroop task performance. In the trial-averaged EEG at three midline scalp electrodes, the error-related negativity (ERN), error positivity (Pe) and conflict-related N450 were determined. Compared to HC, 1) SZ exhibited an attenuated ERN and N450, and a larger Pe, and 2) BP exhibited an attenuated ERN but normal Pe and N450. Between patient groups, SZ showed an attenuated N450 and trend toward a larger Pe; ERN was not significantly different. A small (n=10) SZ subgroup that was not receiving antipsychotic medication showed normal ERPs. Altered error- and conflict-monitoring occur together in first-episode schizophrenia patients, and these measures are comparable in patients with first-episode bipolar disorder. Antipsychotic medication may contribute to altered measures of error-monitoring in schizophrenia.
    Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 12/2014; 221:114=121. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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