Pharmaceuticals and Other Organic Chemicals in Selected North-Central and Northwestern Arkansas Streams

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, University of Arkansas, 203 Engineering Hall, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.
Journal of Environmental Quality (Impact Factor: 2.65). 07/2006; 35(4):1078-87. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2005.0248
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recently, our attention has focused on the low level detection of many antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, and other organic chemicals in water resources. The limited studies available suggest that urban or rural streams receiving wastewater effluent are more susceptible to contamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, and other organic chemicals at 18 sites on seven selected streams in Arkansas, USA, during March, April, and August 2004. Water samples were collected upstream and downstream from the influence of effluent discharges in northwestern Arkansas and at one site on a relatively undeveloped stream in north-central Arkansas. At least one antibiotic, pharmaceutical, or other organic chemical was detected at all sites, except at Spavinaw Creek near Mayesville, Arkansas. The greatest number of detections was observed at Mud Creek downstream from an effluent discharge, including 31 pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals. The detection of these chemicals occurred in higher frequency at sites downstream from effluent discharges compared to those sites upstream from effluent discharges; total chemical concentration was also greater downstream. Wastewater effluent discharge increased the concentrations of detergent metabolites, fire retardants, fragrances and flavors, and steroids in these streams. Antibiotics and associated degradation products were only found at two streams downstream from effluent discharges. Overall, 42 of the 108 chemicals targeted in this study were found in water samples from at least one site, and the most frequently detected organic chemicals included caffeine, phenol, para-cresol, and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydro naphthalene (AHTN).

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Available from: Brian E Haggard, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "This result indicates that there is a high possibility of tylosin applied in livestock production being transported into the water system through wastewater discharge and other diffused sources of input. Tylosin was obtained at a lower average concentration of 1.15 μg/L in wastewater in Poudre River, USA (Yang and Carlson 2004) and between 0.06 and 0.18 μg/L in Arkansas streams, USA (Haggard et al. 2006). The concentration range obtained for streptomycin as presented in the box plot was 0.81– 8.42 μg/L with a Q 2 value of 7.35 μg/L. "
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrences of pharmaceuticals and personal care products as emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) have been reported in several countries of the world except from African countries. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the occurrence of nine antibiotics, five antipyretics, atenolol, bezafibrate, and caffeine in wastewater and surface water samples from the Umgeni River. The water samples were extracted with solid-phase extraction using hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) and C-18 cartridges for the acidic and neutral drugs, respectively. The quantification was carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) using the standard addition method. The method limits of detections were in the range of 0.14-0.97 μg/L while the recoveries were between 53.8 and 108.1 %. The wastewater had 100 % occurrence of the analytes studied, with caffeine having the highest concentration at 61 ± 5 μg/L and nalidixic acid being the most observed antibiotic at 31 ± 3 μg/L. The waste treatment process reduced the influent concentrations by 43.0-94.2 % before discharge except for atenolol removal that is lower. The concentrations of the analytes were lower in the surface water with most compounds having concentrations below 10 μg/L except acetaminophen and atenolol. The estuary mouth and Blue Lagoon had the highest concentrations of some of the compounds in surface water which depict downstream load. The factors governing the fate and mobility of these compounds in this environment are not fully understood yet and will require further studies.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 07/2014; 186(11). DOI:10.1007/s10661-014-3926-z · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    • "Municipal and regional wastewater treatment facilities remain a cornerstone of urban and economic development . While the processes employed at modern wastewater treatment facilities in the United States and in other industrialized countries are considerably evolved, the final effluent leaving these plants is not completely free of biological and chemical materials that are potentially harmful to humans and the environment [1] [2] [3] [4]. Of developing concern are bioreactive compounds that are not targeted by regulations governing discharge of wastewater . "
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    ABSTRACT: Broad-host-range plasmids are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance genes and can quickly spread antibiotic resistant phenotypes among diverse bacterial populations. Wastewater treatment plants have been identified as reser-voirs for broad-host-range plasmids carrying resistance genes. The threat of broad-host-range plasmids released into the environment from wastewater treatment plants has identified the need for disinfection protocols to target broad-host-range plasmid destruction. Here we evaluate the efficacy of dissolved ozone at 2 and 8 mg·L –1 as a primary means for the destruction of broad-host-range plasmid and chromosomal DNA in simulated effluent. Pilot-scale tests using an experimental unit were carried out in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent and compared with ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation and chlorination methodologies. Genes specific to Escherichia coli (uidA) and IncP broad-host-range plasmids (trfA) were monitored using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and total DNA was monitored using absorbance spectroscopy. In wastewater treatment plant experiments, E. coli qPCR results were com-pared to a recognized culture-based method (Colilert ®) for E. coli. In laboratory experiments, dissolved ozone at 8 mg·L –1 significantly destroyed 93% total, 98% E. coli, and 99% of broad-host-range plasmid DNA. Ozonation, UV-irradiation, and chlorination significantly reduced DNA concentrations and culturable E. coli in wastewater treat-ment plant effluent. Chlorination and UV disinfection resulted in 3-log decreases in culture-based E. coli concentrations in wastewater treatment plant effluent while changes were not significant when measured with qPCR. Only ozonation significantly decreased the IncP broad-host-range plasmid trfA gene, although concentrations of 2.2 × 10 5 copies trfA·L –1 remained in effluent. Disinfection processes utilizing high dissolved ozone concentrations for the destruction of emerging contaminants such as broad-host-range plasmid and total DNA may have utility as methods to ensure down-stream environmental health and safe water reuse become more important.
    Advances in Microbiology 01/2012; 02(01). DOI:10.4236/aim.2012.21001
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    • "Several studies have determined that PPCPs exist in effluents in the range of high ng/L to low μg/L concentrations, and are present in stream surveys in the United States (Gross et al. 2004; Haggard et al. 2006; Waltman et al. 2006; Glassmeyer et al. 2008). Although PPCPs occur at relatively low concentrations , their continual long-term release may result in significant environmental concentrations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) can reach soil and aquatic environments through land application of wastewater effluent and agricultural runoff. The objective of this research was to assess the fate of PPCPs at field scale. PPCPs were measured systematically in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and in soil and groundwater receiving treated effluent from the WWTP. A land application site in West Texas was used as the study site; it has received treated wastewater effluent from the WWTP for more than 70years in order to remove additional nutrients and irrigate non-edible crops. Target compounds (estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, triclosan, caffeine, ibuprofen, and ciprofloxacin) in wastewater, sewage sludge, soil, and groundwater were determined using HPLC/UV with qualitative confirmatory analyses using GC/MS. Samples were collected quarterly over 12months for wastewater and sludge samples and over 9months for soil and groundwater samples. Results indicated that concentrations of PPCPs in wastewater influent, effluent, sludge solid phase, and sludge liquid phase were in the range of non-detected (ND)-183μg/L, ND-83μg/L, ND-19μg/g, and ND-50μg/L, respectively. Concentrations in soil and groundwater samples were in the range of ND-319ng/g and ND-1,745μg/L, respectively. GC/MS confirmation data were consistent with the results of HPLC/UV analyses. Overall, data indicate that PPCPs in the wastewater effluent from the WWTP transport both vertically and horizontally in the soil, and eventually reach groundwater following land application of the effluent. KeywordsPharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)–Wastewater–Sludge–Groundwater–Land application–Soil contamination
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 03/2011; 216(1):257-273. DOI:10.1007/s11270-010-0532-8 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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