Hair dye use is not associated with risk for bladder cancer: evidence from a case-control study in Spain.
ABSTRACT An increased bladder cancer risk has been suggested among users of hair dyes. We evaluated this association among females in a hospital-based case-control study in Spain (152 female incident cases, 166 female controls). The effect of hair dye use was also evaluated among potentially susceptible subgroups defined by NAT1, NAT2, CYP1A2, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes. Use of any hair dye (OR=0.8, CI 0.5-1.4) or of permanent hair dyes (OR=0.8, CI 0.5-1.5) was not associated with increased risk. Small non-significant increases in risks were observed in a lagged analysis that ignores exposures within ten years of diagnosis (OR=1.3, CI 0.8-2.2). No trend in risk with increasing exposure was seen for duration of use, average use or cumulative use. None of the polymorphisms examined significantly modified the hair dye associated risk. Overall, this study does not support an association between hair dye use and bladder cancer.
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ABSTRACT: We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO2 and ZnO in sunscreens. However, current evidence suggests that these particles are non-toxic, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care products raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these products and their ingredients.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 03/2010; DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2009.12.001 · 3.63 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Hazards effect on stuck-open fault testability[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Testing of stuck-open faults requires sequences of input vectors. The authors discuss test invalidation problems produced by hazard switching due to internal delays or timing skews in input changes. To avoid invalidation possibilities in stuck-open fault-test sequences, the proposed solutions lead to structural modifications of the circuit or robust test sequences composed of more than two vectorsEuropean Test Conference, 1989., Proceedings of the 1st; 05/1989
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative (permanent) hair dyes contain one or several "primary intermediates" (e.g., p-phenylenediamines, p-aminophenols) and "couplers" (e.g., m-aminophenols, m-hydroxyphenols). In the presence of peroxide, the primary intermediate(s) and the coupler(s) undergo a chemical reaction to form colored oligomers. In the 1970s a number of aromatic amines used in oxidative hair dyes were identified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic in rodents after lifetime oral administration. In response, regulatory action was taken, and some hair dye ingredients were banned in the European Union. Although recent results suggest that the main "primary intermediate" of oxidative hair dyes, p-phenylenediamine, has a weak genotoxic potential in vitro, it was not mutagenic in a mixture with nonmutagenic couplers, if tested under conditions comparable to those of practical use. Under conditions of use of permanent hair dyes, between 0.1 and 0.5% of the applied p-phenylenediamine may be absorbed through the skin. Acetylation in the skin is a key metabolic step for the primary intermediates p-phenylenediamine and p-aminophenol. Because of the involvement of aromatic amines, the discussion on the carcinogenicity of hair dyes in humans has been focused on urothelial cancer. Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated the risk of bladder cancer associated with the profession as a hairdresser, as well as the risk to consumers of hair dyes. Although some earlier studies suggested an overrepresentation of bladder cancer in male hairdressers, the majority of modern studies do not show an increase in relevant bladder cancer risk for professional or personal use of oxidative hair dyes. Today, there seems to be no relevant bladder cancer risk from the use of oxidative hair dyes. Such a conclusion can be derived from new toxicokinetic and metabolism investigations and is in general accordance with current epidemiological data. Human urothelial cancers, chemically induced by aromatic amines, have typical latency times often longer than 20 years. Since earlier exposures could have an impact decades later, the possibility of bladder cancer in hairdressers having intensively worked with permanent hair dyes during earlier decades (prior to the 1980s) should be taken into account.Critical Reviews in Toxicology 02/2007; 37(6):521-36. DOI:10.1080/10408440701385671 · 6.41 Impact Factor