A phase I trial to determine the optimal biological dose of celecoxib when combined with erlotinib in advanced non-small cell lung cancer
ABSTRACT Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibition (TKI)-resistant manner. Because preclinical data indicated that tumor COX-2 expression caused resistance to EGFR TKI, a phase I trial to establish the optimal biological dose (OBD), defined as the maximal decrease in urinary prostaglandin E-M (PGE-M), and toxicity profile of the combination of celecoxib and erlotinib in advanced non-small cell lung cancer was done.
Twenty-two subjects with stage IIIB and/or IV non-small cell lung cancer received increasing doses of celecoxib from 200 to 800 mg twice daily (bid) and a fixed dose of erlotinib. Primary end points included evaluation of toxicity and determination of the OBD of celecoxib when combined with erlotinib. Secondary end points investigate exploratory biological markers and clinical response.
Twenty-two subjects were enrolled, and 21 were evaluable for the determination of the OBD, toxicity, and response. Rash and skin-related effects were the most commonly reported toxicities and occurred in 86%. There were no dose-limiting toxicities and no cardiovascular toxicities related to study treatment. All subjects were evaluated on intent to treat. Seven patients showed partial responses (33%), and five patients developed stable disease (24%). Responses were seen in patients both with and without EGFR-activating mutations. A significant decline in urinary PGE-M was shown after 8 weeks of treatment, with an OBD of celecoxib of 600 mg bid.
This study defines the OBD of celecoxib when combined with a fixed dose of EGFR TKI. These results show objective responses with an acceptable toxicity profile. Future trials using COX-2 inhibition strategies should use the OBD of celecoxib at 600 mg bid.
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ABSTRACT: The EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) demonstrate efficacy in NSCLC patients whose tumors harbor activating EGFR mutations. However, patients who initially respond to EGFR TKI treatment invariably develop resistance to the drugs. Known mechanisms account for approximately 70% of native and acquired EGFR TKI resistance. In the current study we investigated a novel mechanism of NSCLC resistance to erlotinib. Experimental Design: The mechanisms of acquired erlotinib resistance were evaluated by microarray analysis in thirteen NSCLC cell lines and in vivo in mice. Correlations between plasma neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels, erlotinib response and the EGFR mutational status were assessed in advanced stage NSCLC patients treated with erlotinib. In 5 of 13 NSCLC cell lines NGAL was significantly upregulated. NGAL knockdown in erlotinib-resistant cells increased erlotinib sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. NGAL overexpression in erlotinib-sensitive cells augmented apoptosis resistance. This was mediated by NGAL-dependent modulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim levels. Evaluation of the plasma NGAL levels in NSCLC patients that received erlotinib revealed that patients with lower baseline NGAL demonstrated a better erlotinib response. Compared to patients with wild type EGFR, patients with activating EGFR mutations had lower plasma NGAL at baseline and weeks 4 and 8. Our studies uncover a novel mechanism of NGAL-mediated modulation of Bim levels in NSCLC that might contribute to TKI resistance in lung cancer patients. These findings provide the rationale for the further investigations of the utility of NGAL as a potential therapeutic target or diagnostic biomarker.American Journal of Translational Research 01/2013; 5(5):481-96. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is one of the most deadly diseases worldwide. The current first-line therapies include chemotherapy using epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and radiotherapies. With the current progress in identifying new molecular targets, acquired drug resistance stands as an obstacle for good prognosis. About half the patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatments develop resistance. Although extensive studies have been applied to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, evidence is far from enough to establish a well-defined picture to correct resistance. In the review, we will discuss four different currently developed strategies that have the potential to overcome drug resistance in lung cancer therapies and facilitate prolonged anticancer effects of the first-line therapies.Drug Design, Development and Therapy 06/2014; 8:735-744. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S60672 · 3.03 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Although preclinical studies on camptothecin antitumor effect have demonstrated the superiority of low-dose protracted dosing, these findings were not replicated in the clinic. 7-t-butyldimethylsilyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (AR-67) is a camptothecin analogue currently under investigation in early phase clinical trials. To maximize the therapeutic potential of AR-67, we sought to identify factors that affect response to treatment. After determining the maximum tolerated dose using neutropenia as a toxicity endpoint, xenografts received AR-67 under varying dosing schedules and were monitored for survival. On the last treatment day, tumor tissue was collected and topoisomerase 1 (Top1), γH2AX, caspase 3 and PARP protein content was evaluated. AR-67 plasma and tumor pharmacokinetics were also studied in mice and cancer patients who were administered AR-67 as a 1-h intravenous infusion on days 1, 4, 8, 12 and 15 every 21 days. Low-dose protracted dosing schedules increased animal survival compared to less frequent, but higher-dose courses and the expression of Top1 and γH2AX were schedule dependent. Fatigue and neutropenia were the dose-limiting toxicities identified in patients receiving AR-67. Finally, elimination of AR-67 from the tumor site was slower in both xenografts and tumor of a patient enrolled in the pilot clinical trial. We demonstrated that low-dose protracted dosing schedules of AR-67 are therapeutically effective and Top1 reflects the biological activity of AR-67 in xenografts. Moreover, the tumor pharmacokinetics as well as the efficacy and safety of AR-67 given intermittently to cancer patients warrant further investigation.Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 05/2014; 74(1). DOI:10.1007/s00280-014-2472-2 · 2.80 Impact Factor