Dose Effects of Propranolol on Cancellous and Cortical Bone in Ovariectomized Adult Rats
ABSTRACT Animal studies suggest that bone remodeling is under beta-adrenergic control via the sympathetic nervous system. The purpose of this study was to examine the preventive effect of different doses of nonspecific beta-blockers (propranolol) on trabecular and cortical bone envelopes in ovariectomized rats. Six-month-old female Wistar rats were ovariectomized (OVX, n = 60) or sham-operated (n = 15). Then, OVX rats were subcutaneously injected with 0.1 (n = 15), 5 (n = 15), or 20 (n = 15) mg/kg propranolol or vehicle (n = 15) for 10 weeks. Tibial and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) were analyzed longitudinally by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. At death, the left tibial metaphysis and L(4) vertebrae were removed, and microcomputed tomography (Skyscan 1072; Skyscan, Aartselaar, Belgium) was performed for trabecular bone structure investigation. Histomorphometry analysis was performed on the right proximal tibia to assess bone cell activities. After 10 weeks, OVX rats had decreased BMD and trabecular parameters and increased bone turnover, as well as cortical porosity compared with the sham group (p < 0.001). Bone architecture alteration was preserved by 0.1 mg/kg propranolol due to higher trabecular number and thickness (+50.35 and +6.81%, respectively, than OVX; p < 0.001) and lower cortical pore number (-52.38% than OVX; p < 0.001). Animals treated by 0.1 mg/kg propranolol had a lower osteoclast surface and a higher osteoblast activity compared with OVX. Animals treated by 20 mg of propranolol did not significantly differ from OVX rats. Animals treated by 5 mg of propranolol have been partially preserved from the ovariectomy. These results showed a dose effect of beta-blockers. The lower the dose of propranolol breeding, the better the preventive effect against ovariectomy.
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ABSTRACT: Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200 µg/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (2.0 µg) every fourth day, or a β-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or β-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2015.04.026 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) represents a promising therapeutic approach to treat patients with osteoporosis. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Scl-Ab, running and a combination of both on bone formation. Methods: Sixty female Wistar rats, aged 8 months were randomly assigned to five groups (subcutaneous injections performed twice a week): (1) (Sham): sedentary rats + saline, (2) (OVX): ovariectomized rats + saline, (3) (OVX + E): OVX rats + saline + treadmill training (5 times/week, 1 h/day), (4) (OVX + E + S): OVX rats + treadmill training + 5 mg/kg Scl-Ab and (5) (OVX + S): OVX rats + 5 mg/kg Scl-Ab. After 14 weeks, body composition, whole body and femoral BMDs were determined by DXA and serum was collected for analysis of osteocalcin and NTX. Bone microarchitecture was analyzed using μCT and bone strength was assessed at the femur mid-shaft in 3-point bending. Results: Running exercise decreased fat mass as well as the bone resorption marker NTX relative to the non-exercised control groups, effects that were associated with a prevention of the deleterious effects of OVX on whole body and femoral BMDs. Scl-Ab increased the bone formation marker osteocalcin, which resulted in robust increases in BMD and femoral metaphyseal bone volume to levels greater than in the Sham group. OVX + S + E group did not further impact on bone mass relative to the OVX + S group. At the cortical femur diaphysis, Scl-Ab prevented the decreases in bone strength after OVX, while exercise did not affect cortical strength. Conclusion: We suggest that while running on a treadmill can prevent some bone loss through a modest antiresorptive effect, it did not contribute to the robust bone-forming effects of Scl-Ab when combined in an estrogen ablation model.Bone 04/2015; 52–58. DOI:10.1016/j.bonr.2015.03.002 · 4.46 Impact Factor