Smoking cessation.

Respiratory Unit, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen.
BMJ (online) (Impact Factor: 17.22). 07/2006; 332(7553):1324-6. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.332.7553.1324
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking is the most prevalent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases among HIV-positive persons. We assessed the effect on smoking cessation of training HIV care physicians in counselling. The Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) is a multicentre prospective observational database. Our single-centre intervention at the Zurich centre included a half day of standardized training for physicians in counselling and in the pharmacotherapy of smokers, and a physicians' checklist for semi-annual documentation of their counselling. Smoking status was then compared between participants at the Zurich centre and other institutions. We used marginal logistic regression models with exchangeable correlation structure and robust standard errors to estimate the odds of smoking cessation and relapse. Between April 2000 and December 2010, 11 056 SHCS participants had 121 238 semi-annual visits and 64 118 person-years of follow-up. The prevalence of smoking decreased from 60 to 43%. During the intervention at the Zurich centre from November 2007 to December 2009, 1689 participants in this centre had 6068 cohort visits. These participants were more likely to stop smoking [odds ratio (OR) 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.42; P=0.004] and had fewer relapses (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.61-0.92; P=0.007) than participants at other SHCS institutions. The effect of the intervention was stronger than the calendar time effect (OR 1.19 vs. 1.04 per year, respectively). Middle-aged participants, injecting drug users, and participants with psychiatric problems or with higher alcohol consumption were less likely to stop smoking, whereas persons with a prior cardiovascular event were more likely to stop smoking. An institution-wide training programme for HIV care physicians in smoking cessation counselling led to increased smoking cessation and fewer relapses.
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    ABSTRACT: There is both a clear need and a political will to improve self-care in long-term conditions: demand for self-care support interventions is rising. This article discusses current approaches to supporting self-care in primary care, evidence in favour of self-care support, and issues for GPs to consider in planning self-care support systems. In planning care pathways, important choices need to be made about whether to use individual or group-based approaches and what intensity of intervention is appropriate to match patient needs. Investment may also be needed in both health professional competences and practice systems to optimise their ability to support patient self-care. Self-care support is a key approach for the future of UK health care. Practices that are well trained and well organised to support self-care will respond better to the complex challenges of achieving improvements in the outcomes of long-term conditions.
    British Journal of General Practice 11/2007; 57(543):814-21. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is now recognized as a major source of ill health around the world with an important impact on both developed and developing economies. The emphasis in research has shifted from a purely physiological focus that mainly considered how airway smooth muscle tone can be modulated to improve lung emptying. Although long-acting inhaled beta-agonist and antimuscarinic antagonists have improved clinical management for many symptomatic patents, there is increasing attention being paid to the inflammatory component of COPD in the airways and lung parenchyma and to its close association with other diseases, which cannot simply be attributed to their having a common risk factor such as tobacco smoking. This clinical review is intended to identify not only those areas where pharmacological treatment has been successful or has offered particular insights into COPD but also to consider where existing treatment is falling short and new opportunities exist to conduct original investigations. A picture of considerable complexity emerges with a range of clinical patterns leading to several common end points such as exacerbations, exercise impairment and mortality. Defining subsets of patients responsive to more specific interventions is the major challenge for the next decade in this field.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 10/2008; 155(4):487-93. · 5.07 Impact Factor


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