Economic evaluation of duloxetine for the treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence: a Markov model comparing pharmacotherapy with pelvic floor muscle training.
ABSTRACT Duloxetine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and may be useful for treating women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in general practice.
The objective of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of 2 duloxetine strategies (duloxetine alone and duloxetine after inadequate response to pelvic floor muscle training [PFMT]) compared with PFMT or no treatment for women aged>or=50 years with SUI.
A Markov model with a 3-month cycle length was developed, with a time horizon of 5 years. Incontinence severity was based on incontinence episode frequency per week (IEF/week). Four SUI health states were distinguished in the model: no SUI (0 incontinence episode [IE] per week), mild SUI (19 IEs/week), moderate SUI (10-25 IEs/week), and severe SUI (>or=26 IEs/week). Transition probabilities were calculated, based on published evidence, expert opinion, and demographic data. Outcomes were expected total societal costs and expected IEs. The analysis was performed from the societal perspective of The Netherlands, and all costs were reported in year-2002 euros. One-way sensitivity and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.
In the model, providing PFMT cost euro0.03/IE avoided, compared with no treatment. Duloxetine after inadequate PFMT cost euro3.81/IE avoided, compared with PFMT One-way sensitivity analyses indicated that these results were robust regarding variation in age, IEF/week, and discount rate. Below the ceiling ratio of euro3.65/IE avoided, PFMT had the highest probability of being cost-effective. With higher ceiling ratios, duloxetine after inadequate PFMT had the highest cost-effectiveness probability.
Treating patients with duloxetine after inadequate PFMT response yielded additional health effects in the model, but would require society in The Netherlands to pay euro3.81/IE avoided for women aged>or=50 years with SUI being treated in general practice. It is up to policy-makers to determine whether this ratio would be acceptable.
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ABSTRACT: Many women suffer from urinary incontinence (UI). During and after pregnancy, women are advised to perform pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) to prevent the development of UI. In established UI, PFMT is prescribed routinely as first-line treatment. Published studies are small, underpowered and of uneven methodological quality. Variations in study populations, intervention types and outcome measures make comparisons difficult. While further studies are needed, the available evidence suggests a lack of long-term efficacy of peripartum PFMT. In established UI, there seems to be a modest immediate response to PFMT. Based on the available evidence, we believe that a critical reappraisal of PFMT is needed, and judgments on the place of PFMT in current clinical practice should be reserved until further evidence, including cost-benefit analyses, has unequivocally demonstrated a clinically relevant efficacy.Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 02/2008; 87(4):384-402. DOI:10.1080/00016340801938806 · 1.99 Impact Factor
- 12/2008: pages 511-520;
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ABSTRACT: Aim of this study was to investigate the excitability of sphincter motor neurons under the influence of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) and duloxetine. Due to their mechanisms of action, there might be a synergistic effect of duloxetine and PFMT in regard to the facilitation of spinal reflexes controlling urethral sphincter contractions and hence continence. In ten healthy female subjects, clitoral electric stimulation (CES) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were used to determine individual motor thresholds for external urethral sphincter (EUS) contractions before and after PFMT, duloxetine, and PFMT + duloxetine. PFMT and duloxetine alone significantly decreased the motor thresholds for EUS contractions during CES and TMS. However, the combined treatment reduced the motor threshold for EUS contractions significantly stronger compared to PFMT or duloxetine alone. The results are suggestive for a synergistic facilitatory effect of PFMT and duloxetine on sphincter motor neuron activation.International Urogynecology Journal 04/2009; 20(6):659-66. DOI:10.1007/s00192-009-0836-7 · 2.16 Impact Factor