A genetic basis for human susceptibility to West Nile virus.
ABSTRACT West Nile virus (WNV) infects thousands of humans annually and causes a spectrum of disease ranging from an acute febrile illness to lethal encephalitis. A new study suggests a link between CCR5Delta32 (a common mutant allele of the chemokine and HIV receptor CCR5) and fatal WNV infection. The study highlights a possible risk in targeting this receptor for the prevention and/or treatment of infectious diseases.
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ABSTRACT: We described the rapid production of the domain III (DIII) of the envelope (E) protein in plants as a vaccine candidate for West Nile Virus (WNV). Using various combinations of vector modules of a deconstructed viral vector expression system, DIII was produced in three subcellular compartments in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana by transient expression. DIII expressed at much higher levels when targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) than that targeted to the chloroplast or the cytosol, with accumulation level up to 73 μ g DIII per gram of leaf fresh weight within 4 days after infiltration. Plant ER-derived DIII was soluble and readily purified to > 95% homogeneity without the time-consuming process of denaturing and refolding. Further analysis revealed that plant-produced DIII was processed properly and demonstrated specific binding to an anti-DIII monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conformational epitope. Furthermore, subcutaneous immunization of mice with 5 and 25 μ g of purified DIII elicited a potent systemic response. This study provided the proof of principle for rapidly producing immunogenic vaccine candidates against WNV in plants with low cost and scalability.04/2014; 2014:952865. DOI:10.1155/2014/952865
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ABSTRACT: The threat of West Nile virus (WNV) epidemics necessitates the development of a technology platform that can produce reagents to support detection and diagnosis rapidly and inexpensively. A plant expression system is attractive for protein production due to its low-cost and high-scalability nature and its ability to make appropriate posttranslational modifications. Here, we investigated the feasibility of using plants to produce two WNV detection and diagnostic reagents to address the current cost and scalability issues. We demonstrated that WNV DIII antigen and E16 monoclonal antibody are rapidly produced at high levels in two plant species and are easily purified. Furthermore, they are effective in identifying WNV and in detecting human IgM response to WNV infection. E16 mAb does not cross-react with other flaviviruses, therefore, is valuable for improving diagnostic accuracy. This study provides a proof of principle for using plants as a robust and economical system to produce diagnostic reagents for arboviruses.BioMed Research International 01/2012; 2012:106783. DOI:10.1155/2012/106783 · 2.71 Impact Factor
- Journal of Travel Medicine 01/2009; 16(3):204-16. · 1.53 Impact Factor