CARMA1 is critical for the development of allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma.
ABSTRACT CARMA1 has been shown to be important for Ag-stimulated activation of NF-kappaB in lymphocytes in vitro and thus could be a novel therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases such as asthma. In the present study, we demonstrate that mice with deletion in the CARMA1 gene (CARMA1(-/-)) do not develop inflammation in a murine model of asthma. Compared with wild-type controls, CARMA1(-/-) mice did not develop airway eosinophilia, had no significant T cell recruitment into the airways, and had no evidence for T cell activation in the lung or draining lymph nodes. In addition, the CARMA1(-/-) mice had significantly decreased levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, did not produce IgE, and did not develop airway hyperresponsiveness or mucus cell hypertrophy. However, adoptive transfer of wild-type Th2 cells into CARMA1(-/-) mice restored eosinophilic airway inflammation, cytokine production, airway hyperresponsiveness, and mucus production. This is the first demonstration of an in vivo role for CARMA1 in a disease process. Furthermore, the data clearly show that CARMA1 is essential for the development of allergic airway inflammation through its role in T lymphocytes, and may provide a novel means to inhibit NF-kappaB for therapy in asthma.
Article: Deficiency of caspase recruitment domain family, member 11 (CARD11), causes profound combined immunodeficiency in human subjects.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Profound combined immunodeficiency can present with normal numbers of T and B cells, and therefore the functional defect of the cellular and humoral immune response is often not recognized until the first severe clinical manifestation. Here we report a patient of consanguineous descent presenting at 13 months of age with hypogammaglobulinemia, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and a suggestive family history. We sought to identify the genetic alteration in a patient with combined immunodeficiency and characterize human caspase recruitment domain family, member 11 (CARD11), deficiency. Molecular, immunologic, and functional assays were performed. The immunologic characterization revealed only subtle changes in the T-cell and natural killer cell compartment, whereas B-cell differentiation, although normal in number, was distinctively blocked at the transitional stage. Genetic evaluation revealed a homozygous deletion of exon 21 in CARD11 as the underlying defect. This deletion abrogated protein expression and activation of the canonical nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway in lymphocytes after antigen receptor or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulation, whereas CD40 signaling in B cells was preserved. The abrogated activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway was associated with severely impaired upregulation of inducible T-cell costimulator, OX40, cytokine production, proliferation of T cells, and B cell-activating factor receptor expression on B cells. Thus in patients with CARD11 deficiency, the combination of impaired activation and especially upregulation of inducible T-cell costimulator on T cells, together with severely disturbed peripheral B-cell differentiation, apparently leads to a defective T-cell/B-cell cooperation and probably germinal center formation and clinically results in severe immunodeficiency. This report discloses the crucial and nonredundant role of canonical NF-κB activation and specifically CARD11 in the antigen-specific immune response in human subjects.The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 02/2013; 131(2):477-485.e1. · 9.17 Impact Factor
Article: Adiponectin deficiency increases allergic airway inflammation and pulmonary vascular remodeling.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with an increased incidence and severity of asthma, as well as other lung disorders, such as pulmonary hypertension. Adiponectin (APN), an antiinflammatory adipocytokine, circulates at lower levels in the obese, which is thought to contribute to obesity-related inflammatory diseases. We sought to determine the effects of APN deficiency in a murine model of chronic asthma. Allergic airway inflammation was induced in APN-deficient mice (APN(-/-)) using sensitization without adjuvant followed by airway challenge with ovalbumin. The mice were then analyzed for changes in inflammation and lung remodeling. APN(-/-) mice in this model develop increased allergic airway inflammation compared with wild-type mice, with greater accumulation of eosinophils and monocytes in the airways associated with elevated lung chemokine levels. Surprisingly, APN(-/-) mice developed severe pulmonary arterial muscularization and pulmonary arterial hypertension in this model, whereas wild-type mice had only mild vascular remodeling and comparatively less pulmonary arterial hypertension. Our findings demonstrate that APN modulates allergic inflammation and pulmonary vascular remodeling in a model of chronic asthma. These data provide a possible mechanism for the association between obesity and asthma, and suggest a potential novel link between obesity, inflammatory lung disease, and pulmonary hypertension.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 02/2009; 41(4):397-406. · 5.13 Impact Factor
Article: Adiponectin decreases pulmonary arterial remodeling in murine models of pulmonary hypertension.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Remodeling of the pulmonary arteries is a common feature among the heterogeneous disorders that cause pulmonary hypertension. In these disorders, the remodeled pulmonary arteries often demonstrate inflammation and an accumulation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) within the vessels. Adipose tissue secretes multiple bioactive mediators (adipokines) that can influence both inflammation and remodeling, suggesting that adipokines may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypertension. We recently reported on a model of pulmonary hypertension induced by vascular inflammation, in which a deficiency of the adipokine adiponectin (APN) was associated with the extensive proliferation of PASMCs and increased pulmonary artery pressures. Based on these data, we hypothesize that APN can suppress pulmonary hypertension by directly inhibiting the proliferation of PASMCs. Here, we tested the effects of APN overexpression on pulmonary arterial remodeling by using APN-overexpressing mice in a model of pulmonary hypertension induced by inflammation. Consistent with our hypothesis, mice that overexpressed APN manfiested reduced pulmonary hypertension and remodeling compared with wild-type mice, despite developing similar levels of pulmonary vascular inflammation in the model. The overexpression of APN was also protective in a hypoxic model of pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, APN suppressed the proliferation of PASMCs, and reduced the activity of the serum response factor-serum response element pathway, which is a critical signaling pathway for smooth muscle cell proliferation. Overall, these data suggest that APN can regulate pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial remodeling through its direct effects on PASMCs. Hence, the activation of APN-like activity in the pulmonary vasculature may be beneficial in pulmonary hypertension.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 11/2010; 45(2):340-7. · 5.13 Impact Factor