Phosphoinositide-Mediated Adaptor Recruitment Controls Toll-like Receptor Signaling
ABSTRACT Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in the immune system as sensors of microbial infection. Signaling downstream from TLRs is initiated by the recruitment of adaptor proteins, including MyD88 and TIRAP. These adaptors play essential roles in TLR signaling, but the mechanism of their function is currently unknown. Here we demonstrate that TIRAP and MyD88 have distinct functions and describe a mechanism of recruitment of TIRAP and MyD88 to TLR4. We find that TIRAP contains a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding domain, which mediates TIRAP recruitment to the plasma membrane. TIRAP then functions to facilitate MyD88 delivery to activated TLR4 to initiate signal transduction. These results establish that phosphoinositide-mediated adaptor recruitment initiates a specific signal-transduction pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Rosmarinus officinalis L. phenolic compounds have attracted considerable attention because of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, including its ability to treat inflammatory disorders. In this work, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of R. officinalis aqueous extract on neutrophil trafficking from the blood into an inflamed tissue, on cell-derived secretion of chemical mediators, and on oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats orally treated with the R. officinalis extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg). The leukocyte influx (optical microscopy), secretion of chemical mediators (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the anti-oxidative profile (super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) spectrophotometry) were quantified in the inflamed exudate. N-Formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine-induced chemotaxis, lipopolysaccharide-induced NO2 (-) production (Greiss reaction), and adhesion molecule expression (flow cytometry) were in vitro quantified using oyster glycogen recruited peritoneal neutrophils previous treated with the extract (1, 10, or 100 µg/mL). Animals orally treated with phosphate-buffered saline and neutrophils incubated with Hank's balanced salt solution were used as control. R. officinalis extract oral treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in the neutrophil migration as well as decreased SOD, TBARS, LTB4, PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the inflamed exudate. In vitro treatment with R. officinalis decreased neutrophil chemotaxis, NO2 (-) production, and shedding of L-selectin and β2 integrin expressions. Results here presented show that R. officinalis aqueous extract displays important in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory actions by blocking pathways of neutrophil migration and secretion, suggesting its therapeutic application to acute inflammatory reactions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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ABSTRACT: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) induces lipolysis in adipocytes, where ET-1 chronic exposure results in insulin resistance (IR) through suppression of glucose transporter (GLUT)4 translocation to the plasma membrane and consequently glucose uptake. ARF6 small GTPase, which plays a vital role in cell surface receptors trafficking, has previously been shown to regulate GLUT4 recycling and thereby insulin signalling. ARF6 also plays a role in ET-1 promoted endothelial cell migration. However, ARF6 involvement in ET-1-induced lipolysis in adipocytes is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the role of ARF6 in ET-1-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This was achieved by studying the effect of inhibitors for the activation of ARF6 and other signalling proteins on ET-1 induced lipolysis and ARF6 activation in the adipocytes. Our results indicate that ET-1 induces, through endothelin type A receptor (ETAR), lipolysis, the ARF6 activation and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in adipocytes, further ET-1 stimulated lipolysis is inhibited by the inhibitors of ARF6 activation, ERK phosphorylation and dynamin, which is essential for endocytosis. Our studies also revealed that ARF6 acts upstream of ERK in ET-1-indcued lipolysis. In summary, we determined that ET-1 activation of ETAR signalled through ARF6, which is crucial for lipolysis.Biochemical Pharmacology 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2014.06.012
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ABSTRACT: The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system are unusual in that individual family members are located on different organelles, yet most activate a common signaling pathway important for host defense. It remains unclear how this common signaling pathway can be activated from multiple subcellular locations. Here, we report that, in response to natural activators of innate immunity, the sorting adaptor TIRAP regulates TLR signaling from the plasma membrane and endosomes. TLR signaling from both locations triggers the TIRAP-dependent assembly of the myddosome, a protein complex that controls proinflammatory cytokine expression. The actions of TIRAP depend on the promiscuity of its phosphoinositide-binding domain. Different lipid targets of this domain direct TIRAP to different organelles, allowing it to survey multiple compartments for the presence of activated TLRs. These data establish how promiscuity, rather than specificity, can be a beneficial means of diversifying the subcellular sites of innate immune signal transduction.Cell 02/2014; 156(4):705-16. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2014.01.019