Importin KPNA2, NBS1, DNA repair and tumorigenesis.
ABSTRACT During the past 20 years, the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex has become an increasingly important focus in basic and clinical cancer research. One main conceptual step forward was made with the discovery of NBS1 and the understanding of its critical pathophysiological role in Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Major efforts were carried out to define the role in DNA repair of this complex. Recently, basic research has continuously extended our understanding of the complexity of the NBS1 complex. MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex can no longer be viewed as having a single role in DNA damage repair since it also serves as a sensor and a mediator in cell cycle checkpoint signaling. Meanwhile, studies have challenged the concept that NBS1 only functions as a tumor suppressor in preserving genome integrity in the nucleus. It may also provide an oncogenic role in the cytoplasm which is associated with the PI3-kinase/AKT-activation pathway. Consistent with this aspect, a growing body of clinical evidence suggests that NBS1 contains a deleterious character that depends on its subcellular localization. This review focuses on recent experimental evidences demonstrating how NBS1 is translocated into the nucleus by an importin KPNA2 which mediates NBS1 subcellular localization and the functions of the NBS1 complex in tumorigenesis.
Article: Nuclear karyopherin alpha2 expression predicts poor survival in patients with advanced breast cancer irrespective of treatment intensity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Intensive lymph node involvement indicates poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The significance of other molecular prognostic factors in this subgroup is unclear. Karyopherin alpha2 (KPNA2) has been reported as an important factor of tumorgenesis and progression of breast cancer. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of KPNA2 expression on prognosis of patients with high risk breast cancer (HRBC) and response intensive chemotherapy within the randomized WSG-AM-01 trial. KPNA2 nuclear expression (>10% vs. <10% of nuclei) was measured by immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays of 191 patients randomized to tandem high dose vs. conventional dose-dense chemotherapy in HRBC with >9 positive lymph nodes and correlated with clinical outcome (median follow-up of 63.3 months) by Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox hazard model analysis, including, molecular subtypes determined by k-clustering (k = 5). KPNA2 overexpression (n = 74, 39%) significantly correlated with shorter event-free and overall survival (OS) in both therapy arms by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that the overexpression of KPNA2 was an independent prognostic factor of decreased OS HR = 1.86 [95% CI: 1.07-3.23, p = 0.03]. This predictive value was independent of basal-like/Her-2/neu subtypes, significantly associated with KPNA2 and was addressed particularly to G2 tumors. Our data suggest the use of KPNA2 nuclear expression as novel prognostic marker in node-positive patients, especially in determination of G2 tumors in 2 subgroups of different prognosis. KPNA2 expression may be also considered as a marker for global chemoresistance, which can not be overcome by conventional dose-modification of chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer.International Journal of Cancer 06/2008; 123(6):1433-8. · 5.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Isoforms of importin-α have been identified in insect and human cells, and cross-linking experiments suggest that at least one isoform in each species participates in the targeting of integral membrane proteins to the inner nuclear membrane (INM). To directly test this hypothesis, an assay was developed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The data show that internal promoters are present within KAP60, and the nested transcripts are translated into three isoforms: Kap60-44, Kap60-30 and Kap60-10. In the absence of the isoforms, the INM protein Heh2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) localized to cytoplasmic membranes, whereas its wild-type localization at the nuclear periphery was restored when the Kap60-44 isoform was reintroduced. An INM-sorting sequence has been identified that cross-links with the isoform of importin-α that directs trafficking toward the nuclear envelope (NE). When this sequence in HEH2 was mutated, Heh2 was again localized to cytoplasmic membranes. Thus, this report provides the first evidence that isoforms of Kap60 exist in yeast, and these isoforms participate in the molecular sorting and enrichment of INM proteins to the NE. Herein, we provide additional support for the hypothesis that trafficking of INM proteins to the NE is a regulated process.Traffic 12/2010; 11(12):1506-18. · 4.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The development of complex tissues requires that mitotic progenitor cells integrate information from the environment. The highly varied outcomes of such integration processes undoubtedly depend at least in part upon variations among the gene expression programs of individual progenitor cells. To date, there has not been a comprehensive examination of these differences among progenitor cells of a particular tissue. Here, we used comprehensive gene expression profiling to define these differences among individual progenitor cells of the vertebrate retina. Retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) have been shown by lineage analysis to be multipotent throughout development and to produce distinct types of daughter cells in a temporal, conserved order. A total of 42 single RPCs were profiled on Affymetrix arrays. In situ hybridizations performed on both retinal sections and dissociated retinal cells were used to validate the results of the microarrays. An extensive amount of heterogeneity in gene expression among RPCs, even among cells isolated from the same developmental time point, was observed. While many classes of genes displayed heterogeneity of gene expression, the expression of transcription factors constituted a significant amount of the observed heterogeneity. In contrast to previous findings, individual RPCs were found to express multiple bHLH transcription factors, suggesting alternative models to those previously developed concerning how these factors may be coordinated. Additionally, the expression of cell cycle related transcripts showed differences among those associated with G2 and M, versus G1 and S phase, suggesting different levels of regulation for these genes. These data provide insights into the types of processes and genes that are fundamental to cell fate choices, proliferation decisions, and, for cells of the central nervous system, the underpinnings of the formation of complex circuitry.PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(2):e1588. · 4.09 Impact Factor